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Terms in this set (25)

Inhibitory control and emotional regulation

-emotional responses or processes that help to guide decision-making

Iowa Gambling Task!
-There is a good deck and a bad deck
-Normally, emotional response to bad deck is early, pre-aware; the willingness to change decks is very positive
-In OFC patients, the emotional response to the bad deck is delayed or null; their willingness to change decks is slowed (are ehh about it)
-participants had to figure out that they can earn the most money by choosing the decks associated with net winnings, yet low payoffs
-healthy adults and patients with damage outside the OFC gable in a manner that maximizes winnings
-OFC damage patients failed to choose that one that resulted in net winnings
-proposed somatic marker (changes in physiological arousal) hypothesis--> emotional information, in the form of physiological arousal, is needed to guide decision making
-difficult for OFC patients because it requires them to change their initial perceptions of the potential for rewards in the risky decks

-start picking from one deck and going to have wins and loses and counting how much time or how many cards pulled until the person switches
-sit on a bad deck--> physiological responses before we realize it--> bigger desire to change
-systems reacting to things in the environment are going to shape our decision-making

Frontal Disconnections:
-can't remember
-orbitofrontal not responsive to external or internal emotion

-With OFC damage, could generate solutions to problems when faced with social reasoning tasks, but could not prioritize solutions based on ability to solve the problem
--> poor decisions about professional and social life
--> difficulty anticipating the consequences of their actions and did not learn from their mistakes

-OFC structures support learning associations between a complex situation and the somatic changes usually associated with that particular situation
-OFC and other brain regions together consider previous situations that elicited similar patterns of somatic change--> OFC uses these experiences to rapidly evaluate possible behavioral responses and their likelihood for reward--> decision making can then selectively focus on option-outcome pairings that are potentially rewarding

-OFC damage--> inability to respond to changing patterns of reward and punishment
-amygdala activity going to shape and influence things we bother remembering
-susceptbility of memory consolidation to modulating influences occurring after learning episodes enables neurobiological process activated by emotional arousal to regulate the strength of memory
-evidence suggests that stress stress hormones released by the adrenal glands, epinephrine, and corticosterone (cortisol in humans) by emotionally arousing experiences play an important role in modulating memory

-an arousal response can influence people's ability to store declarative or explicit memories
-memory enhanced by arousal

Amygdala's role is modulatory
-amygdala is not necessary for learning hippocampal-dependent task, but it is necessary for the arousal-dependent modulation of memory

Effect of modulation with arousal can occur after initial encoding of the task, during the retention interval
-amygdala modulates hippocampal, declarative memory by enhancing retention, rather than by altering initial encoding of the stimulus
-when their is an arousal response, the amygdala alters hippocampal processing by strengthening the consolidation of memories
-amygdala can interact directly with the hippocampus during the initial encoding phase (not just the consolidation phase) of an experience, which in turn also positively affects the long-term consolidation
--> the amygdala can modulate hippocampal-dependent declarative memory at mistuple stages, leading to a net effect of enhanced retention
-amygdala has a role in modifying the rate of forgetting for arousing stimuli
arousal may alter how quickly we forget

-amygdala acts to modulate hippocampal consolidation for arousing events