Aminoglycosides - Adverse reactions
- Nephrotoxicity occurs in about 5-25% of patients (may progress to renal failure)
- Nephrotoxicity is manifested by urinary casts, protein urea, increased BUN, and creatinine. Nephrotoxicity is usually reversible.
- Ototoxicity occurs in 3-14% and is usually not reversible. believed to result from injury to the 8th cranial nerve (cochleovestibular nerve), causes damage to the hearing and balance (vestibular). Manifested by dizziness, tinnitus, feeling of fullness in the ears, hearing loss. Other symptoms are headache, parasthesias, vertigo, skin rash, fever, neuromuscular paralysis.
- Hematological - bone marrow depression due to direct drug effect may lead to immune suppression and superinfection.
- GI system - N/V/D, weight loss, stomatitis, and hepatic toxicity.
- Skin Effects - photosensitivity, purport, rash, uticaria, exfoliative dermatitis.
- Cardiac - palpations, hypotension, hypertension.
- risk for toxicity is creates with high doses or prolonged therapy.