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Chemistry Chapter 13
Terms in this set (81)
the energy an object has because of its motion
a theory explaining the states of matter, based on the concept that all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion
results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object; due to collisions of gas particles within an object
a space where no particles of matter exist
the pressure exerted by atoms and molecules in the atmosphere surrounding Earth, resulting from collisions of these particles with objects
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
the SI unit of pressure
standard atmosphere (atm)
a unit of pressure; it is the pressure required to support 760 mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25 degrees Celsius
the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor
vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid in a sealed container; a dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid
normal boiling point
the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 101.3 kPa or 1 atm
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the melting point of water is 0 degrees Celcius
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
a solid in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice
the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal
one of two or more different molecular forms of an element in the same physical state
describes a solid that lacks and ordered internal structures; denotes a random arrangement of atoms
transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that have cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing
the process in which a solid changes to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state
a graph showing the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or vapor
the point on a phase diagram that represents the only set of conditions at which all three phases exist in equilibrium with one another
word that refers to motion
1) The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume.
2) The motion of the particles in a gas is rapid, constant, and random.
3) All collisions between particles in a gas are perfectly elastic.
according to the kinetic theory...(3)
Gas particles travel in _______ paths.
The gas ____ the container.
1, 760, 101.3
_ atm= ___ mm Hg= _____ kPa
The particles in any collection of atoms or molecules at a given temperature have a ____ range of kinetic energies. Most are somewhere in the _______ of this range.
0 K, or -273.15°C; the temperature at which the motion of particles theoretically ceases
Do particles have kinetic energy at absolute zero?
Has absolute zero ever been produced in a laboratory?
The Kelvin temperature of a substance is ______ proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.
Substances that can flow are referred to as ______.
Which states of matter are fluids? (solid, liquid, gas)
1) interplay between the disruptive motions of particles in a liquid
2) attractions among the particles
What determines the physical properties of liquids?
In an ____ container, molecules that evaporate can escape from the container.
closed, vapor, condense
In a ______ container, the molecules cannot escape. They collect as a ____ above the liquid. Some molecules ________ back into a liquid.
During __________, only those molecules with a certain _______ kinetic energy can escape from the surface of the liquid.
dynamic equilibrium, equals
In a system at constant vapor pressure, a _____ ________ exists between the vapor and the liquid. The system is in equilibrium because the rate of evaporation of liquid ______ the rate of condensation of vapor.
An increase in the temperature of a contained liquid ________ the vapor pressure.
The particles in the warmed liquid have _______ kinetic energy. As a result, more of the particles will have the ______ kinetic energy necessary to escape the surface of the liquid.
device used to determine the vapor pressure of a liquid
When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to ____.
A liquid boils when its vapor pressure is ____ to the external pressure.
Liquids _____ always boil at the same temperature.
At a lower external pressure, the boiling point ______. At a higher external pressure, the boiling point ______.
Because a liquid can have various boiling points depending on pressure, the normal boiling point is defined as the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of _________.
1) the orderly arrangement of their particles
2) the fixed locations of their particles
What do the general properties of solids reflect?
In most solids, the atoms, ions, or molecules are packed ____ together.
_____ are dense, not easy to compress, and do not flow.
When you heat a solid, its particles _____ more rapidly as their kinetic energy _______.
The melting and freezing points of a substance are at the _____ temperature. At that temperature, the liquid and solid phases are in ______.
In general, ionic solids have ____ melting points because relatively strong forces hold them together. Molecular solids have relatively ____ melting points.
an orderly, repeating, three-dimensional pattern in a crystal; repeating array of any one of fourteen kinds of unit cells
the arrangement of particles within the solid
What does the shape of the crystal reflect?
seven groups that crystals are classified into
2) number of edges of equal length
How do the seven crystal systems differ?
simple cubic, body centered, face centered
three kinds of unit cells
What is a substance that exists in more than one form?
Although allotropes are composed of atoms of the ____ element, they have ______ properties because their structures are different.
carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen, boron, antimony
elements with allotropes (6)
Not all solids are crystalline in form; some solids are _______.
example of amorphous solid, sometimes called supercooled liquids
The irregular internal structures are ________ between those of a crystalline solid and those of a free-flowing liquid.
How many crystal systems are there?
How many kinds of unit cells are there?
The conditions of pressure and temperature at which two phases exist in equilibrium are indicated on the phase diagram by a line ________ the phases.
With an ______ in pressure, the vapor begins to behave more like a _____.
The solid and vapor are in equilibrium at temperatures below _____.
Increasing the pressure ____ change the vapor to a liquid.
Below the _____ ____, the vapor and liquid cannot exist in equilibrium.
lower, raise; raise, lower
A decrease in pressure will ____ the boiling point and _____ the melting point. An increase in pressure will ____ the boiling point and ____ the melting point.
freezing, melting, boiling, condensation
This flask is at the triple point. ________, _______, _______, and _________ are all occurring at the same time in the flask.
pressure, temperature, physical states
The phase diagram of water shows the relationship among ______, _______, and the _____ ______ of water.
In each of the curving regions of the phase diagram, water is in a _____ phase.
The curving line that separates water's vapor phase from its liquid phase describes the __________ conditions for liquid and vapor. The other two lines describe the conditions for ________ between liquid water and ice and between water vapor and ice.
The point on the diagram at which all three lines meet is called the _____ ______.
vapor pressure, atmospheric pressure
Sublimation can occur because solids, like liquids, have a _____ ________ that exceeds _______ ________ at or near room temperature.
Sublimation has ____ useful applications.
A phase diagram gives the conditions of _______ and _______ at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas (vapor).
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