Mythology Midterm

true myths: roles of gods and humans
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Linear Atablet on writings, don't know what it meansLabyrinthmaze, the house of a double axe (aka Palace of Knossos)frescouse color to differentiate gender and classSnake Goddess of Knossosdouble headed axe, symbolizes power,Palace of Knossosthe house of the double axe. throne room: not of a king/queen, bc of a chair made of limestone, very small bathtub in front, protected, guarded by mythical creaturesPalaikastros Kuros (statue)- know it's a god bc of the stance -made of ivory (expensive godly offering) - inscription in honor of Zeus bc near Mount Dicte - Zeus=worshiped by Myceneans on mainlandIsland of Thera (Santorini)-Cycladic Islands -Bronze age town of Akrotiri - influence of Minoan cultureLocation of Mycenaecapital of the kingdom of AgamemnonMycenaean Civilization1. early phase 1600-1500BCE shaft grave agricultures 2. middle phase 1500-1400BCE tholos grave culture, conquest of Crete 3. final phase 1400-1200BCE peak of Mycenaean cultureMycenae- citadel walls and Lion gate -on top of Mycenaean palace is a megaron at Pylos of the Wanax Palace of NestorLinear B- tablets that have been deciphered - elaborate version of Linear ATroy- destroyed and rebuilt many times - corresponds to the end of the bronze age -9 Trojan cities - mythological village - aggressive Mycenaeans conquer Minoans and likely see Troy as a rivalTrojan War- 9 successive settlements at Troy - 1250-1150BCEChaossuggests a "yawning void"Tartarusplace deep in the depths of earthErebusthe gloomy darkness of TartarusOvid's chaosa crude and unformed mass of elements in strife, from which a god or some higher nature formed the order of the universeHieros gamos"sacred" or "holy marriage"Gods of the sunHyperion, Helius, the Titan - all names transferred to god ApolloPhaethonbecome son of Apollo, as a sun godArtemisApollo's twin sister, associated with the moon (moon goddess)Artemision Statue- has a godly stance - question of Poseidon or Zeus? we don't know -made of bronze, would have gleamed/shined in the light -gripping hand (holding either trident or thunderbolt) - arms stretched in fighting position -most likely Zeus because if holding trident, it would be too long and have blocked faceGreat Altar of Zeus and Athena- stone work of a human body - battle of gods/goddesses - Athena: graceful, in control, know what's going to happen to her son, figures from behind (Nike) and below - limbs overlapping everywhere in marble - Zeus: exposed chest/abdomen, moving drapery, strong no doubt the winner, eagles, thunderboltsEnd of Mycenaean Civilization- just before 1200BCE -collapse of Bronze Age Civilizations: Minoans, Mycenaeans, HittitesTheories of the end of the Bronze Age: collapse 1177 BCE1. Egyptian records point to "sea peoples" 2. The modern "Dorian Invasion" hypothesis: Dorians thought they were related to Hercules, theory linguistically fit but no material cultural evidence 3. More recent theory of "subsystems" collapse brought on by multiple factors: obstructed sea trade, natural disasters, economic pressures and revolts"Geometric Homer": 800-700 BCE- greek civilization recorded from Bronze Age - highly decorated pots in geometric pattern - wrote Iliad and the OdysseyOdysseyOdysseus' travel back home from Troy. Greeks considered these the most important works of their culture and ancient histroyIf Homer didn't existthere would be missing information, we would have writings copied from oral poems during 6th century. Poems about the Trojan war, not origins and stories of the godsHesiod's theogony (after Homer)- gives first literary explanation of how the gods, universe and human kind came to be - claims that Muses visited him and inspired him to write the theogonyTheogony: theos + gonethe generation/birth of the godsHomeric Hymns- 33 Homeric Hymns - not composed by Homer, composed at different times - Poems in honor of a sequence of different gods and goddessesVirgil ( middle 1st c. BCE)- epic poet - Aeheid: epic poem about Aeheas ( a Trojan prince who escaped from Troy), who arrived in Latium and was the ancestor of Romulus and RemusOvid (poet, end 1st c. BCE)- epic poem about 200 mythological stories - the metamorphoses - most familiar stories of Greek and Roman mythology came from Ovid - some stories became canonical versionHesiod: Theogony- "verily, very first of all chaos came into being..." - "but then wide-bosomed Gaia, secure foundation of all forever" appeared - then Tartarus (depths of earth) - the Eos (love/desire) -then Erebus (gloomy, darkness of Tartarus) - then Night/Nyx (darkness of earth)Gaia/Gearchetypal fertile female goddess, surfadce of the earth. - Ge herself (with no sexual intercourse) generated some physical aspects of the surface of the earth ex. mountains, waterGe + Uranus12 Titans, Cyclopes, Hectatonchires12 Titans- born from Uranus and Ge - represent deifications of aspects or elements of natural life - god portions of the sky (sun, moon, dawn) -gods/goddesses of the waters ( Oceanus Tethys) - goddess of the flow of things (Rhea) -God of time (Cronus ) -Goddess of light (Pheobe) - Goddess of natural laws (Themis)Chaos producedGaea, Tartarus, Eros, ErebusZeus- lord of gods and men - assumes sky as special sphere - marries his sister Hera - may be depicted as immoral or "a joke" - concern for gods and humans - god of the sky , cloud gatherer of epic - root of name "bright" - does not rule in supreme powerZeus and Hera- sacred marriage between sky god and earth goddess - Hera consistently acts with a severity fitting her image: mother, queen, wife - Hera- worshpped less as an earth goddess, than as a goddess of women, marriage, and childbirthIriswinged goddess, servant to HeraOlympiasanctuary of Zeus. His son, Hercules found the Olympic gamesZeus m. HeraEileithyia, Hebe, Hephaestus, AresEileithyiagoddess of childbirth (like her mother)Hebe- goddess of youthful bloom - servant to the gods, primarily known as cupbearer to deities on Olympus - becomes Hercules' bride once he gains immortalityHephaestus- god of creative fire and divine smith - divine workshop in Olympus - major role: create things of extraordinary beauty and utility -created shield of Achilles - made gold robots (look like live young women) that can move and speak - often linked with Athena (benefactors of wisdom, arts and crafts, champions of progress and civilization -wife = Aphrodite (strange and tempestuous marriage) - got kicked out of Olympus for being lameAres (Mars)- god of war - Dawn (Eos) one of his mistresses - character depicted as divine swashbuckler - not esteemed by Zeus (personification of killing frenzy and unbridles violence during war) -father of victory - Eros/Cupid = son - helmet, spear, piercing gazeThe Nine Muses- daughters of Zeus and Memory (Mnemosyne) - patronesses of literature and the arts - home lcatied in Pieria (northern Thessaly near Mt. Olympus) - may originally have been water spirits with power of prophecy then inspiration - Inspired Homer to write his Theogony - supreme in their fieldsThe Three Fates- daughters of Zeus and Themis - originally birth spirits, depicted as old women who were responsible for the destiny of every individual - Clotho (spinner): spins out the thread of life, which carries with it the fate of each human being from birth - Lachesis (apportioner): measures out thread - Atropos (inflexible): sometimes known as smallest and most terrible, cuts off thread and brings life to an endPoseidon- god of waters and sea - similar appearance to Zeus (majestic, bearded) - more severe and rough - carries trident (resembles fisherman's spear) - may destroy or kill at mere stroke of his tridentPontus + GeNereusOceanus (titan) m. Tethys (titan) =Oceanids (thousands of children)Nereus m. Doris (oceanid)=Nereids (50 daughters) - 3 mermaids: Thetis, Galated, AmphitritePeleus and Thetis- Thetis: destined to bear a son mightier than his father - married mortal Peleus - possesses power of changing shape and form (to avoid capture) - bore the son Achilles, who was indeed mightier than his dadGalatea (nerid) was loved by whoPolyphemus (cyclops) - son of PoseidonPoseidon and Amphitrite- Amphitrite (nerid) = wife of Poseidon - Son, TritonTritonson of Poseidon and Amphitrite - human above the waist, fish below - often depicted blowing in a conch shell - can change shapeProteussea divinity, attendant of Poseidon - "old man of the sea" who can tell the future - shapeshifter: identities of Nerus, Proteus and Triton were confusedScylla and Charybdis- Poseidon made advances to Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys and Hecate - Amphitrite became jealous and threw magic herbs into Scylla's bathing place - Scylla then transformed into a terrifying monster, encircled with ring of dogs headsIris- goddess of rainbow - messanger of gods - fleet footed and wingedHarpies- violent - fleetfooted and wingedIris and Harpies- sisters - conceived of as strong winds - later depicted in art as birdlike creatures with faces of women - often terrifying and a pestilenceThe Graeae (Aged Ones)- 3 sisters - personification of old age (grey hair from birth) - swan like, beautiful - one eye and one tooth is shared among the three of themThe Gorgons- 3 sisters (sisters w Graeae) - Stheno, Euryale, Medusa - terrifying aspect, if you looked at them, you'd turn to stone - Medusa: most important (lover of Poseidon) - Medusa- presenting greatest challenge to Perseus when he beheaded her, she was pregnant and from her corpse sprang a winged horse (pegasus)Birth of Athena- renowned goddess, bright eyes, inflexible heart - birthed from Zeus' holy head arrayed in her armor of war, gleaming in gold - Zeus swallowed his consort Metis after he made her pregnant with Athena. He swallowed because he was afraid that Metis would bear a son who would overthrow himCharacter and Appearance of Athena- goddess of "central womanly skill of weaving" - weaving became a metaphor for human resourcefulness, most respected art, belonged to the excellence of a woman - skilled in taming/training of horses - inventor of the flute - often represented with her attributes of war: helmet, shield, spear - sometimes attended by winged figure (Athena Nike)Parthenon- marble temple for Athena - overlooking city, Aegean Sea - symbol of birth of democracy - several buildings look similar - 2 gods fighting for the honor of being the patron of the city: Poseidon and Athena- Poseidon offered the sea nearby, Athena offered olive tree (symbol of peace), the Athenians chose Athena's gift - Replanted the olive tree, a gift to AthenaHyperion (eastern sky) + Theia =1. Helius: sun god. Myth of Phaethon (son of Helius), he asked for the chariot of the sun, taking the reins he wasn't able to control it, chariot got too close to the earth 2. Selene: goddess of moon 3. Eros: goddess of the dawnSelene and EndymionSelene (moon) saw Endymion (the shepherd) in a cave and fell in love with him. She asked Zeus for him to have immortality, however Zeus granted him perpetual youth, but also eternal sleep. Endymion was not dead, he was asleep for the rest of his lifeEos (Roman = Aurora): goddess of the dawn- "rosy fingered", "saffron robed" (two colors of the dawn) - saffron = expensive spice for food and dying clothes - falls in love with mortal Tithonos (a Trojan prince), she begs Tithonos to live forever - she forgets to ask for perpetual youth, Tithonos overcome by old age, Eos stays away - Tithonos becomes a grasshoppedCastration of Uranus and Birth of Aphrodite- Uranus despises his children, and stuffs them back inside Gaia - when Uranus was spreading over Ge at night, Cronus grabbed his father's genitals and cut them with the sickle, then toss them behind into the sea (no more children, not a full god) - Uranus tried to penetrate Ge, so Ge opened and thus Cronus was able to find a way out of Ge and thus cut his father's genitals - Marine fam grew around Uranus' severed floating genitals - Aphrodite was born from the seafoamCronus (time) + Rhea (the flow of things) =Hestia, Demeter, Hera (goddessess) Hades, Poseidon, Zeus (gods) - Cronus fears prophecy, predicted he was going to be overthrown by one of his childrenTitanomachy (battle of the Titans)- Zeus defeats Cronus - Zeus + 5 siblings (Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon) vs. 12 Titans (not enough god power) - Zeus freed the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes to help him fight ( 3 Hectatonchires and 3 Cyclopes) - Cyclopes made thunderbolts for Zeus - Now 12 v. 12 - Zeus + Allies vs. Titans (and Cronus)Titanomachy lasts 10 years- Titans defeated, imprisoned in TartusGigantomachy and Typhoeus- Giants arose from the ground (Ge) where blood from Uranus' severed genitals fell (parents= Uranus and Gaia) - still kind of brothers to Aphrodite, the Titans, the Hectachires and the Cyclops (offspring of Uranus) -Giants were defeated and buried under the earth - Volcanoes = locations where the giants diedAphrodite Urania Aphrodite Pandemos Aphrodite Attendants of Aphrodite- Urania: sprung from Uranus alone (older of the two, stronger, more intelligent) - Pandemos: sprung from Zeus and Dione (physical in nature, devoted to physical satisfaction) - Aphrodite: goddess of beauty, love and marriage - Attendants of Aphrodite: 1. Graces (Charities): generally 3, personifications of loveliness 2. Hours or Seasons (Horae): daughters of Zeus and Themis, sometimes difficult to distinguish from Graces, but have clearer identity as the seasons -Phallic Priapus: Aphrodite's son, fertility god, deformed and bearing a huge erect phallus - Aphrodite often confused with Phoenician goddess Astarte - 3 hearts the goddess of love is unable to sway: Athena, Artemis and HestiaThe Pergamene Altar- Outer Frieze: Gigantomachy (battle of the giants) - Pergamon: lucrative industry of parchment - Athena: wears Aegis (protective vest made of scales with Medusa head in center) - Athena defeats Alcyoneus: Nike is shown by the artist to communicate that Athena won, Nike's hand is reaching towards Athena's head (placing victory crown)Prometheus- dominant tradition, creation of man, possible creator of the universe - he took earth and rainwater and made humans in a similar appearance to the godsThe 4 or 5 Ages1. the age of Gold (age of Cronus) 2. the age of Silver 3. the age of Bronze 4. the age of Heroes (not for Ovid) 5. the age of Iron (Hesiod's own time)The Age of Men (by Hesiod)1. Age of Gold: Cronus = king in heavan,Olympic gods created peaceful and harmonious humans 2. Age of Silver: Zeus= king of Gods 3. Age of Bronze: made by Zeus, violent, killed each other 4. Age of Iron: made by Zeus, humans have to work, gods gave them both good and evilAtlas and Prometheus- prometheus is bound to a column - Zeus sends an eagle to eat his liver every day, it grows back, then eagle comes for more - Prometheus stole fire and gave it to humansThe Creation of the First Woman- Hesiod, theogony - Hephaistos creates the first woman out of clay, decked out by Athena - Hesiod "A great infestation among mortal men" - Hesiod says first woman gave three choices to men: 1. not getting married allows to have a house and food until end of life 2. getting married with bad wife, constant miseryThe Creation of Pandora- Hesiod works days and nights - Hephaestus makes a woman from clay (robot in woman shape) - Other gods add gifts: Pandora = "all gifts", named by Hermes Hephaestus: makes her into the likeness of a beautiful girl Athena: how to weave a loom Hermes: "the mind of a bitch and the character of a thief" - Pandora opens a jar, releases misery, diseases, evils. only hope was left in the jarZeus and Lycaon and the Wickedness of Mortals- Ovid says Iron race of humans destroyed by divine flood - Human disguised Zeus roams the Earth to check the news of human wickedness during Age of IronIo, Zeus, Prometheus- Io turned into a cow by a jealous Hera - Hera sets many- eyed Argus to guard Io - Io wanders to Egypt, Zeus gives her back her human formHestia- Zeus' sister - goddess of Hearth and it's fire - name means "hearth" - desires to remain a virgin, goddess of chastity - goddess of the house - first born to Cronus and Rhea, comes first in prayersZeus, the guarantor of ORDER, established by a balanced ruler- sky, controls thunder, lightening and rain - root of name means "bright" - champion of human mortals - many loversHera- 3rd wife of Zeus - Attributes: crown, scepter, peackock for Hera, worshipped in the city of Argos - Epithet: " of the white arms", "oxeyes", "of the golden throne"Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia- 776 BCE Greeks had first Olympic games in honor of Zeus - a program of myth, religion and local pride - house statues (made of special materials)Altar of Zeus and Olympia- Pausania - made from the ash of the thighs of the victims sacrificed to Zeus - location = only an estimateThe Oracle at Dodona- important oracle of Zeus - 2 black doves flew from Thebes (egypt), spoke in human tounge - Priestess of Dodona, sitting on a tripod gives the oracles through observation and interpretation of the rustling leaves - sacred oat trees cut down by Christian emperorGanymede- trojan prince abducted by Zeus - becomes immortal cupbearer of the gods (replaces Hebe) - Interpret abduction: homosexual relationship, religious ecstasy, criminal ageHephaestus/Vulcan- god of engineering/architecture - was helped by god woman shaped robots - built the house of the gods on Mt. Olympus - comes up with inventive ideas (robots, robot sex dolls) -god of destructive fireAres and Aphrodite's childrenTerror, Scare, Harmony and Eros/CupidThe Fates/ The Moirai- children of Zeus + Themis (2nd wife) - depicted as 3 old womenZeus + Oceanid3 graces/charities: represent the aspects of loveliness: joy, charm, beauty, the "perfumers" of the godsAnthropomorphism- gods: appear like humans - anthros: human morphe: form - gods that are subject to passions, extrremes of human conditions - moral/immoral, beauty/monster, just/vengeful - olympic gods live on Mt. Olympus - chthonic gods rule the world below in the earth and underworld -food and drink of the godsambrosia and nectarichorblood of the gods (liquid in veins)Sacrifice- held at all major festivals - literary and archeological evidence - nestor sacrifice to Athena: cook/burn meat first to sacrifice to the gods, then cook for themselves - various kinds of animals, animals must be willing (nod) - god = recipient of sacrificeGalatea: lovesGalatea loved by Cyclops (creature with one eye), but Galatea loves AcisBath Complex of Neptune (Ostia Antica)- made by Romans (not Greek) - trident, wind blowing in cloak - no signs of water (rule poseidon out) - marriage between Neptune and his wife (Amphitrite)Neptune in his chariot- trident, he has a halo - holding a little fish (guiding the hippocampi- sea horses)Pontus m. Ge- children: nerus, thaumas, phorcys, eurybieNerus m. Doris50 neridsThaumas m. ElectraIris, HarpiesPhorcys m. CetoGraeae, Gorgons, LadonHarpies- violent birdlike creatures with female faces (harassed king Phineus by stealing his food)Medusa characteristicsface always frontal (never profile), open eyes, mouth open, fangs, tongue sticking outZeus m. Metis- parents of Athena - Zeus swallows his first wife (Metis) - Athena cut open from Zeus' headGalatea (nerid) was loved by who