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Physics 20 Unit A (Chapter 1 and 2)
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Terms in this set (43)
Kinematics
description of motion
origin
a reference point
position
the straight-line distance between the origin and
an object's location; includes magnitude and direction
scalar quantity
a measurement that has magnitude only
vector quantity
a measurement that has both magnitude and
direction
distance
The length of a path between two points
Displacement
a straight line between initial and final positions;
includes magnitude and direction
uniform motion
constant velocity
at rest
not moving; stationary
tangent
a straight line that touches a curved-line graph
at only one point
vector diagrams
a line segment with an arrowhead represents a vector quantity; its point of origin is called the tail, and its terminal point (arrowhead) is the tip
collinear
along the same straight line, either in the same or in opposite directions
resultant vector
a vector drawn from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the last vector; the sum of a series of vectors
components
perpendicular parts into which a vector can be separated
Cartesian method
the positive x-axis is at 0° and angles are measured by moving counterclockwise about the origin. One complete rotation is 360° — a complete circle
navigator method
uses the compass bearings north [N], south [S], east [E], and west [W] to identify vector directions
non-collinear
not along a straight line
relative motion
motion measured with respect to an observer
ground velocity
velocity relative to an observer on the ground
air velocity
An object's velocity relative to still air
wind velocity
velocity of the wind relative to the ground
trajectory
the parabolic path of a projectile
range
the distance a projectile travels horizontally over level ground
kinematics
branch of physics that describes motion using terms, graphs, and equations
origin
a reference point position
scalar quantity
a measurement that has magnitude only
vector quantity
a measurement that has both magnitude and direction
position
an object's distance and direction from a reference point
distance
the length of the path taken to move from one position to another, regardless of direction
displacement
a straight line between initial and final positions; includes magnitude and direction
speed
the rate at which an object moves; a scalar quantity
velocity
the speed and direction of a moving object
uniform motion
an object moves at constant velocity (constant magnitude and direction)
at rest
not moving; stationary
acceleration
a vector quantity representing the change in velocity (magnitude and/or direction) per unit time
non-uniform motion
Motion with a change in speed, direction, or both
instantaneous velocity
the moment-to-moment measure of an object's velocity
tangent
a straight line that touches a curved-line graph at only one point
uniformly accelerated motion
constant change in velocity per unit time
projectile motion
The curved path an object follows when thrown or propelled near the surface of the Earth.
projectile
an object released or thrown into the air
position-time graph
a graph with time data on the horizontal axis and position data on the vertical axis
acceleration due to gravity
the acceleration of an object in free fall that results from the influence of Earth's gravity
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Verified questions
physics
"A uniform thin rod of mass $M$ and length $L$ lies on the positive $x$ axis with one end at the origin. Consider an element of the rod of length $d x$, and mass $d m$, at point $x$, where $0<x<L$. $(c)$ Find the gravitational force on a point particle of mass $m_0$ at $x_0$."
engineering
The schematic of a single-flash geothermal power plant with state numbers is given in the figure. A geothermal resource exists as a saturated liquid at $230^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. The geothermal liquid is withdrawn from the production well at a rate of $230 \mathrm{~kg} / \mathrm{s}$ and is flashed to a pressure of $500\ \mathrm{kPa}$ by an essentially isenthalpic flashing process where the resulting vapor is separated from the liquid in a separator and directed to the turbine. The steam leaves the turbine at $10\ \mathrm{kPa}$ with a moisture content of $10$ percent and enters the condenser where it is condensed and routed to reinjection well along with the liquid coming off the separator. Find $(a)$ the mass flow rate of steam through the turbine, $(b)$ the isentropic efficiency of the turbine, $(c)$ the power output of the turbine, and $(d)$ the thermal efficiency of the plant (the ratio of the turbine work output to the energy of the geothermal fluid relative to standard ambient conditions).
physics
A lightning bolt may carry a current of $1.00 \times 10^t \mathrm{~A}$ for a short period of time. What is the resulting magnetic field $100 \mathrm{~m}$ from the bolt? Suppose that the bolt extends far above and below the point of observation.
physics
In figure mentioned, we considered how charge on the wires produces electric fields that then generate an electromagnetic wave. At the same time, the motion of charges on and off the wires also gives rise to the magnetic field associated with the wave. The electromagnetic wave propagates to the right. What is the direction of the magnetic field $\vec{B}$ near the antenna in the snapshot? (a) Directed to the right, (b) directed to the left, (c) directed out of the plane (toward the reader), or (d) directed into the plane (away from the reader)?