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Dissociative & Factitious Disorders, Malingering, & Dawn
Terms in this set (5)
Dissociative disorders are caused by repression• People fight off anxiety by unconsciously preventing painful memories, thoughts, or impulses from reaching awareness• Dissociative amnesia and fugue are single episodes of massive repression• DID results from a lifetime of excessive repression, motivated by very traumatic childhood events• Most of the support for this model is drawn from case studies, which report brutal childhood experiences. Yet, only a small fraction of abused children develop this disorder.
Most of the support for this model is based on case studies so problems with generalization (external validity). • Some individuals with DID have no known childhood histories of abuse or trauma.• Only a small percentage of abused children develop DID (doesn't explain how the majority of severely abused children do NOT develop DID).
Cognitive-behavioral perspective: State-dependent learning
Learning becomes associated with the conditions under which it occurred, so that it is best remembered under the same conditions• People who are prone to develop dissociative disorders have state-to-memory links that are unusually rigid and narrow• Dissociation grows from normal memory processes and is a response learned through operant conditioning• Behaviorists rely largely on case histories to support their view of dissociative disorders.
Most of the support for this model is based on case studies so problems with generalization (external validity). • Fails to explain all aspects of dissociative amnesia and DID.• Most people can recall events, thoughts, abilities, behaviors, etc., under a variety of arousal states.
Parallel between hypnotic amnesia and dissociative disorders:• In both, people forget certain material for a period of time, yet later remember it.• In both, people forget without any insight or awareness that they are forgetting.• In both, personal information is forgotten more readily than skills or factual knowledge.• Way to avoid distressing situations and memories by putting them out of conscious awareness via hypnotic state following wish or suggestions to forget. • Suggestions put into practice through social and cognitive mechanisms
Most of the support for this model is based on case studies so problems with generalization (external validity). • People with dissociative amnesia often recover on their own (spontaneous recovery) without treatment.• Fails to explain all aspects of dissociative amnesia and DID.
False creation of physical or psychological symptoms, or deceptive production of injury or disease, even without external rewards• Presentation of oneself as ill, damaged, or hurt• Munchausen syndrome (if imposed on another it's Munchausen syndrome by proxy)
deliberately, consciously attempting to feign (fake) an illness in order to reap some type of benefit (such as court-awarded damages for emotional distress or disability) or to avoid some type of negative consequence or punishment (such as criminal prosecution).
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