AP Psychology Unit 1 (Psychology's History and Approaches)

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Wilhelm WundtGerman professor who established the 1st psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879, therefore starting the scientific aspect of modern psychology.Edward B. TitchenerStudent of Wilhelm Wundt, he started the psychological school of structuralism (now deceased) which focused on introspectionstructuralismAn early school of psychology(earliest) that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind, started by Edward B. Titchener.introspectionA method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings, used in Titchener's structuralist school of psychology. (As you can imagine, this seems kinda unreliable).FunctionalismA school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function(from an evolutionary basis) - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. Founded by the great William JamesWilliam JamesThe ounder of functionalism he studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Also wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology, was the teacher of Mary Calkins.Mary CalkinsAmerican psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association, student of William James, never got PhD because of feminist bias.Margaret Floy WashburnThe first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D; synthesized animal behavior research in "The Animal Mind",Experimental PsychologyThe study of behavior and thinking using experimental methodBehaviorismView that psychology ,should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Think (B.F. Skinner and Watson)Humanistic PsychologyAhistorically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth(self actualization).Cognitive NeuroscienceThe interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (includies perception, thinking, memory, and language), (Or in other words its name)PsychologyThe scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Carl RogersA humanist who revolutionized therapy with his book, Client-Centered Therapy in 1951; furthered humanistic theory.Abraham MaslowHumanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization as the ultimate psychological needJohn. B WatsonAmerican psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and completely rejecting the study of mental processesB.F. SkinnerThe pioneer of operant conditioning - believed everything we do is determined by our past history of reinforcements and punishments.Jean PaigetStudied children to learn the development of the human mind.Cognitive RevolutionThe shift away from strict behaviorism, characterized by renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes. Started sometime in the 1960's.Nature-Nurture IssueA longstanding controversy in psychology over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of both.Natural SelectionThe process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species.Levels of AnalysisThe differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.PsychometricsThe scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits, (Probably used by Employers).Basic ResearchPure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.Applied ResearchResearch undertaken to solve a specific problem, like pollution, drunk driving smoking, etc.Personality PsychologistsPsychologists who study the characteristics that make individuals similar to, or different from, one anotherDevelopmental PsychologistA psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures(from birth to death).Educational PsychologistsPsychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving such methodsPsychiatristsMedical doctors who have completed special training in the treatment of psychological disorders. Are the only ones that can preform psychotherapy.Counseling PsychologistsPsychologists who specialize in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems or crisis(divorce, midlife crisis, marriage, motherhood ,etc,.)Clinical PsychologistsPsychologists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.SQ3RA study system designed to promote effective reading by means of five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review.

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