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19 terms

Logical Fallacies

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False Analogy
the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar
Evading Burden of Proof
when someone makes a claim, has no evidence to prove it, and expects you to find that evidence
Simplification
a explanation that omits superfluous details and reduces complexity
Non Sequitur
something that does not logically follow
Either Or
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
Hasty Generalization
A fallacy that presents a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only weak evidence
Double Standard
set of principles granting one group more freedom than another group
Poisoning the Wall
Discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information about the person.
False Authority
using a biased, suspicious, or incredible source to defend a conclusion
Loaded Language
The use of words to persuade people of something without actually making a clear argument for it.
Red Herring
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
Bandwagon Effect
being convineced by a position's popularity
Circular Reasoning
the fallacy of presupposing one's thesis or conclusion
Flattery
A person attempts to compliment or flatter another in order to get her to accept the truth of a proposition
Slippery Slope
X happened, so Y must happen (with no argument for why Y is inevitable)
Veiled Threat
Threaten an opponent if they don't agree with you
Ad Hominem
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.
Faulty Causality
The faulty assumption that because one event follows another, the second necessarily causes the first.
Straw Man
A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position; misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent's position.