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False Analogy

the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar

Evading Burden of Proof

when someone makes a claim, has no evidence to prove it, and expects you to find that evidence


a explanation that omits superfluous details and reduces complexity

Non Sequitur

something that does not logically follow

Either Or

A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist

Hasty Generalization

A fallacy that presents a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only weak evidence

Double Standard

set of principles granting one group more freedom than another group

Poisoning the Wall

Discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information about the person.

False Authority

using a biased, suspicious, or incredible source to defend a conclusion

Loaded Language

The use of words to persuade people of something without actually making a clear argument for it.

Red Herring

A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

Bandwagon Effect

being convineced by a position's popularity

Circular Reasoning

the fallacy of presupposing one's thesis or conclusion


A person attempts to compliment or flatter another in order to get her to accept the truth of a proposition

Slippery Slope

X happened, so Y must happen (with no argument for why Y is inevitable)

Veiled Threat

Threaten an opponent if they don't agree with you

Ad Hominem

In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas.

Faulty Causality

The faulty assumption that because one event follows another, the second necessarily causes the first.

Straw Man

A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position; misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent's position.

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