PS 210 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Who was Asclepius?
Greek god of medicine and healing
Who developed a hierarchical conception of nature?
Aristotle
What was Alcmaeon's approach to medicine?
Holistic approach
Who wrote "The Republic?" and believed in an "ideal world?"
Plato
Hellenistic concept that argues a life free of government and tradition
Cynics
Hippocrates' explanation of disease
Imbalance in the four humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm
Galen's personality types
a.Choleric- Irritable
b.Melancholic-Depressed
c.Sanguine-Optimistic
d.Phlegmatic-Calm
Effect of Rome's embrace of Neoplatonism
Rejected empirical science and materialist psychology; embraced christianity
Study of the relationship between stimuli and perception of sensation
Psychophysics
Discovery that provided the basis for the stimulus-response paradigm
Magendie Law: The spinal roots (cord)
Why Bruno was burned at the stake
Earth not center of the universe, supported Copernicus
Titchener's view of the fundamental elements of all mental events
Sensations, emotions, and images
What Flourens discovered about the function of the cerebellum in pigeons and dogs
Removal of the cerebellum affected motor coordination
What theory states that behavior followed by success is repeated
Spencer-Bain Principle
The field of psychology that focuses on the treatment of mental disorder
Clinical psychology
The field of psychology that focuses on observable behavior
Behaviorism
What Titchener believed should be included in the domain of psychology
Introspection
What happened to Structuralism after Tichener died
It died
Wundt's first psychological textbook was on physiological psychology meaning what?
That it applied method of physiology to psychology
What did Wundt describe in terms of quality, intensity, extent and duration?
Sensation
Philosophical approach that argues that behavior is best understood through logic and reason
Rationalism
What James and John Stuart Mill disagreed about
Women's rights
What Galvani discovered, based on whose theory
Effects of electricity on body twitches (reflexes), Whytts Theory
Isaac Newton's discoveries
Gravity, calculus, light refraction
Argued that humans are complex machines explained by mechanistic principles
Le Mettrie
18th century movement that repudiated reason and science in favor of emotionality
Romanticism
Approach to psychology that emphasizes mental processes
Cognitive Approach/ Psychology
What Descartes believed about the pineal gland
Connected mind and body: Dualism
Developed a popular psychological doctrine that became big business in the US
Franz Joseph Gall
What Whytt discovered about a decapitated frog
Frog without brain or spine wouldn't react, frog with spine would; reflexes are not controlled by brain, electrically connected
Who promoted geocentricism as the truth about the known universe
Ptolemy
Would an empiricist support equal education for all children? Why or why not
Yes, sense experience is most important in acquiring knowledge
Who said "Cogito Ergo Sum" and promoted dualism
Descartes
Positive contributions of phrenology
a. Brain is organ of the mind
b. Brain functions localized
c. Personality is individualistic
What William Harvey studied in the book "De Motu Cordus"
Circulation of blood and the motion of the blood in the heart
Broca's contribution in the understanding brain functions
Left frontal lobe center of speech/ Broca area for speech
The meaning of the German word "gymnasium"
Prep school
Philosophical approach that argues for study through observation
Empiricism
Psychological view that claims the whole is different from the sum of its parts
Gestalt principle/psychology
Type of psychologists that Berkeley, Hobbes and Locke represented
Empiricists
Flouren's discovery about the function of the cerebral lobes
a.Different lobes responsible for different functions
b.Willingness, judgment, perception, and memory
Who discovered two types of nerves in the spinal cord: sensory and motor
Charles Bell
Famous for his Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
Johannes Mueller
Published a landmark work called "The Movement of the Blood"
William Harvey
Believed that hereditary monarchy is an essential form of government
Thomas Hobbes
Who believed that human nature is good, and people are born with equal potential?
John Locke
What is ablation?
The removal of certain parts of the brain
American railroad worker struck in the frontal cortex by a tamping iron
Phineas Gage
Most significant development of the 14th century that transformed the intellectual landscape
Printing Press, Johannes Gutenberg
Provided a neuropsychological account of the association of ideas; extended association to encompass behavior
David Hartley
Experimentally investigated the higher mental process of memory, starting in 1877
Herman Ebbinghaus
First pioneer to investigate the concept of "jnd"
Gustav Weber
The pioneer considered to be the father of psychophysics
Fechner
The pioneer who wrote the book Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint and proposed "act psychology"
Brentano
This pioneer was the first person to remove a brain tumor from a living human in a neurosurgical operation
David Ferrier
This pioneer conducted experiments on electrical stimulation of the brain, causing the death of his patient, Mary Rafferty.
Robert Barthalow
This pioneer is considered to be the father of industrial psychology
Hugo Munsterberg
What term did Wundt use to label his view of mental activity?
Volunteerism
When and where did Wundt establish scientific psychology?
University of Leipzig 1879
Which philosopher argued for women's suffrage in the British Parliament?
John Stuart Mill