Midterm 2 (FINAL Version)

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Terms in this set (200)
employee portalsAn intranet portal used for communication and collaboration between an organization and its employees.employee self-serviceProgram that lets employees use an automated system to access their own records and make routine changes.Web 2.0dynamic web applications that allow people to collaborate and share information onlineuser-generated contentcontent that is created and uploaded by other usersmashupa new application or website that uses data from one or more service providersSocial Mediaweb-based applications embodying web 2.0 values such as collaboration, social sharing, allowing people to communicate, interact, and collaborate in various waysSemantic WebA set of design principles that will enable computers to index websites, topics, and subjects, enabling computers to understand the content of web pages and search engines to provide richer and more accurate resultsElectronic Commerce (EC)refers to the exchange of goods, services, and money among firms, between firms and their customers, and between customers supported by communication technology.Business-to-business marketplaceA trading exchange operated by a third-party vendor, not associated with a particular buyer or supplier.Business-to-consumer (B2C)Electronic commerce transactions between businesses and end consumersBusiness-to-business (B2B)Electronic commerce transactions between business partners, such as suppliers, manufacturers, and distributorsConsumer-to-consumer (C2C)Electronic commerce transactions taking place solely between consumersConsumer-to-business (C2B)Electronic commerce transactions in which consumers sell good or services to businesses.mobile commerce (m-commerce)any electronic transaction or information interaction conducted using a wireless, mobile device and mobile networks that leads to a transfer of real or perceived value in exchange for information, services, or goodsE-governmentthe use of information systems to provide citizens, organizations, and other governmental agencies with information about and access to public servicesGovernment-to-citizen (G2C)Onine interactions between federal, state and local governments and their constituentsgovernment-to-business (G2B)Electronic commerce that involves a country's government and a business.government-to-government (G2G)Online interactions that take place between countries or between different levels of government within a country.online bankingthe use of the internet to conduct financial transactionselectronic bill paythe use of online banking for bill payingmobile bankingConducting financial transactions using mobile devices.online brokerageThe use of the internet to obtain information about stock quotes and manage financial portfolios.fintechTechnologies that support activities in the financial sector.brick and mortar business strategyA business approach exclusively utilizing physical locations, such as department stores, business offices, and manufacturing plants, without an online presence.e-tailingElectronic retailing; the online sales of goods and servicesclick-only business strategyA business approach that exclusively utilizes an online presence. Companies using this strategy are also referred to as virtual companiesclick and mortar business strategyA business approach utilizing both physical locations and virtual locations. Also referred to as "bricks and clicks"multichannel retailingOffering the customer different (Independent) touchpoints, such as a retail store and a cataloguecross-channel retailingOffering the different customer touchpoints, such that transactions take place across multiple environments.Omni-channel retailingProviding seamless, simultaneous retail interactions using different channels, such that a customer does not interact with a single channel but with the brand as a whole.sales beaconsBluetooth device that can detect proximate smartphones and send marketing messages or personalized coupons.disintermediationThe phenomenon of cutting out the "middleman" in transactions and reaching customers more directly and efficiently.reintermediationThe design of a business model that reintroduces middlemen to reduce the chaos brought on by disintermediation.long tailThe large parts of consumer demand that are outside the relatively small number of mainstream tastes.mass custumizationTailoring products and services to meet the particular needs of individual costumers on a large scale.group buyingSpecial volume discounts negotiated with local businesses and offered to people in the form of "daily deals"; if enough people agree to purchase the product or service, everyone can purchase the product at the discounted price.menu-driven pricing modelsPricing model under which companies set and present non-negotiable prices for products to consumers.dynamic pricing modelA pricing model under which customers specify the product or service they are looking for and how much they are willing to pay for it, and the provider either accepts or rejects the customers' bids.social commerceLeveraging visitor's social networks in e-commerce interactions to build lasting relationships, advertise products, or otherwise create valuestructural firmnessA web page's characteristics related to security and performancefunctional conveniencea web page's characteristics that make the interaction with the site easier and more convenient.representational delighta web page's characteristics that simulate a user's sensesQR Codestwo-dimensional barcodes with a high storage capacity.Search Engine Optimization (SEO)Methods for imporving a site's ranking in search engine results.search advertising (sponsored search)Advertising that is listed in the sponsored search results for a specific search term.paid inclusionThe inclusion of a website in a search engine's listing after payment of a fee.Instream Video Adsadvertisement places at the beginning, middle, or end of an online video clip.impression based modelPricing model under which pricing is based on the number of times the page containing an ad is displayed, typically expressed in cost per thousand imressions.pay per click modelsA payment model used in online advertising where the advertiser pays the website owner a fee for visitors clicking a certain link.click fraudThe abuse of pay-per-click advertising models by repeatedly clicking on a link to inflate revenue tot he host or increase costs for the advertiser.content marketingA method for attracting a target audience by providing a relevant and valuable content through various channels.click through rateThe number of visitors who click on an ad divided by the umber of times it was displayed.conversion ratethe percentage of visitors to a website who perform a desired action.exit rateThe percentage of visitors who leave the website (terminate the session) after viewing a particular page.bounce rateThe percentage of single-page visits; reflecting the percentage of users for whom a particular page is the only page visited on the website during a session.web analyticsThe analysis of a web user's behavior to improve a site's performance.location-based servicesHighly personalized mobile services based on a user's location.ShowroomingShoppers coming into a store to evaluate the look and feel of a product and then purchasing it online or at a competitor's store.e-auctionsan electronic auction.BlockchainA decentralized public ledger that is highly resilient against tampering, as transactions are added in blocks; serving as unalterable proof of all transactions ever made.card security codeA three digit code located on the back of a credit card; used in transactions when the physical card is not present.Digital Rights Management (DRM)A technological solution that allows publishers to control their digital media to discourage, limit, or prevent illegal copying and distribution.digital watermarkA digital or physical mark that is difficult to reproduce; used to prevent counterfeiting or to trace illegal copies to the original purchaser.webmastersblogamateurization of journalismMicroblogginghashtagtrendinginstant messagingwebcastsMetadatatag cloudsgeotagssocial bookmarkingfolksonomiessocial cataloggingCloud-based collaboration toolscontent management systemcollective intelligencepeer productionwikiCrowdsourcingsocial networkingsocial online communitiesClickbaitSocial searchviral marketingad hoc queryA request for information created due to unplanned information needs that is typically not saved for later use.advanced analyticsTools and techniques used to discover hidden patterns, trends, and relationships in large amounts of data and to build predictive models.AlgorithmThe step-by-step procedures used to make a calculation or perform some type of computer-based process.artificial intelligenceassociation discoveryA data mining technique used to find associations or correlations among sets of items.attributeAn individual field containing data describing an entity in a database.botShort for "software robot"; a program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.Business Analytics (BA)The use of business intelligence and advanced analytics tools to enhance organizational decision making.Business Intelligence (BI)Tools and techniques for analyzing data of past and current transactions to obtain an understanding of an organization's performance.business rulesPolicies by which a business runs.buyer agentAn intelligent agent used to find the best price for a particular product a consumer wishes to purchase. Also known as a "shopping bot."chatbotIntelligent agent that simulates human conversations, such as in online help systems.ClassificationA data mining technique used for grouping instances into predefined categories.clickstream dataA recording of the users' path through a website.ClusteringData mining technique grouping related records on the basis of having similar attributes.competitive intelligenceInformation about competitors, used to enhance a business's strategic position.continuous planning processA strategic business planning process involving continuous monitoring and adjusting of business processes to enable rapid reaction to changing business conditions.Data CleansingThe process of detecting, correcting (e.g., standardizing the format), or removing corrupt or inaccurate data retrieved from different systems.data dictionaryA document prepared by database designers to describe the characteristics of all items in a database.data-driven organizationOrganization that makes decisions that can be backed up with verifiable data.data lakeCentral data repository that allows for storing structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data in a raw format.data martA data warehouse that is limited in scope and customized for the decision support applications of a particular end-user group.data miningMethods used by companies to discover "hidden" predictive relationships in data to better understand their customers, products, markets, or any other phase of their business for which data have been captured.data mining agentAn intelligent agent that continuously analyzes large data warehouses to detect changes deemed important by a user, sending a notification when such changes occur.ModelsA conceptual, mathematical, logical, or analytical formula used to represent or project business events or trends.data modelA map or diagram that represents the entities of a database and their relationships.data reductionA preparatory step to running data mining algorithms, performed by rolling up a data cube to the smallest level of aggregation needed, reducing the dimensionality, or dividing continuous measures into discrete intervals.data scienceThe advanced analytics field of study and practice.data typeThe type (e.g., text, number, or date) of an attribute in a database.data warehouseA repository containing data from multiple large databases and other sources that is suitable for direct querying, analysis, or processing.Decision Support System (DSS)A special-purpose information system designed to support organizational decision making.deep learningNeural-network based approach using multiple layers of neurons to extract features from input data.deepfakeSynthetic still images or video created using advanced deep learning and artificial intelligence techniques, typically with deceptive aims.destructive agentA malicious agent designed by spammers and other internet attackers to farm email addresses off websites or deposit spyware on machines.digital dashboardA display delivering summary information to managers and executives to provide warnings, action notices, and summaries of business conditions.dimensionA way to summarize datadrill downTo analyze data at more detailed levels of a specific dimension.drill-down reportsA report that provides details behind the summary values on a key-indicator or exception report.entitySomething you collect data about, such as people or classesexception reportexplicit knowledge assetextraction, transformation, and loadingThe process of consolidating, cleansing, and manipulating data before loading the data into a data warehouse.factformA business document that contains some predefined data and may include some areas where additional data are to be filled in, typically for adding or modifying data related to a single record.fuzzy logicA type of logic used in intelligent systems that allows rules to be represented using approximations or subjective values to handle situations where information about a problem is incomplete.Geographic Information System (GIS)in-memory computingProcessing of analytical and transactional tasks where the data are stored in a computer's main memory, rather than on a comparatively slow hard drive, removing the bottlenecks associated with reading and writing data.informational systemA system designed to support decision making based on stable point-in-time or historical data.intelligent agentA program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.intelligent systemA system comprised of sensors, software, and computers embedded in machines and devices that emulates and enhances human capabilities.key-indicator reportsknowledge assetknowledge managementknowledge management systemknowledge portallayerlocation analyticsMachine LearningThe branch of artificial intelligence that allows systems to learn by identifying meaningful pat- terns when processing massive amounts of data.Master DataThe data that are deemed most important in the operation of a business; typically the "actors" in an organization's transactions.master data managementConsolidating master data so as to facilitate arriving at a single version of the truth.measureThe values and numbers a users wants to analyze.modelmonitoring and sensing agentAn intelligent agent that keeps track of key data, such as data provided by various sensors, meters, cameras, and notifies the user when conditions change.neural networkAn information system that attempts to approximate the functioning of the human brain.NoSQL"Not only SQL"; a variety of database technologies enabling highly scalable databases that do not conform to RDBMS schemasOLAP cubeA data structure allowing for multiple dimensions to be added to a traditional two-dimensional table for detailed analysis. See also Online analytical processing.OLAP serverThe chief component of an OLAP system that understands how data are organized in the database and has special functions for analyzing the data.Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)The process of quickly conducting complex analyses of data stored in a database, typically using graphical software tools.Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)Immediate automated responses to the requests from multiple concurrent transactions of customers.operational systemA system that is used to interact with customers and run a business in real time.predictive modelingAnalytics techniques focusing on identifying trends or predicting business outcomes.queryA method used to retrieve data from a database.recordA collection of related attributes about a single entity.Rational database management system (RDBMS)A database management system based on the relational database model.reportA compilation of data from a database that is organized and displayed to the user.report generatorA software tool that helps users build reports quickly and describe the data in a useful format.roll upTo analyze data at less detailed levels of a certain dimension.scheduled reportA report produced at predefined intervals— daily, weekly, or monthly—to support the routine informational needs of managerial-level decision making.semistructured dataData (such as clickstreams and sensor data) that do not fit neatly into relational database structures.sentiment analysisThe analysis of semistructured and unstructured data to learn about people's thoughts, feelings, and emotions.sequence discoveryA data mining technique used to dis- cover associations over time.shopping botslicing and dicinganalyzing data on subsets of certain dimensionssocial network analysisstickinessA website's ability to attract and keep visitors.structured dataData such as transaction data that fit neatly into spreadsheets or databases.Structured Query Language (SQL)The most common language used to interface with databases.Supervised LearningTechniques for training an algorithm using known training data.tableA collection of related records in a database where each row is a record and each column is an attribute.tacit knowledge assettext miningAnalytical techniques for extracting information from textual documents.unstructured dataData (such as audio and video data, comments on social networks, etc.) that do not have any identifiable structure.Unsupervised LearningTechniques for inferring hidden patterns in unlabeled data.user agentAn intelligent agent that automatically performs specific tasks for a user, such as automatically sending a report at the first of the month, assembling customized news, or filling out a web form with routine information.visual analyticsThe combination of various analysis techniques and interactive visualizations to solve complex problems.visual data discoveryVisualizationThe display of complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods.web content miningExtracting textual information from web documents.Web CrawlerAn intelligent agent that continuously browses the web for specific content (e.g., used by search engines). Also known as a "web spider."web spiderweb usage miningAn analysis of a website's usage patterns, such as navigational paths or time spent.What-if analysisAn analysis of the effects hypothetical changes to data have on the results.