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97 terms

AP GOV quiz 2 checks n balances

STUDY
PLAY
separation of powers
division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making
checks and balances
mechanisms thru which each gov branch participates in/influences activities of other branches
legislative supremacy
preeminence of Congress over other branches
divided government
when one party controls presidency and opposing party controls one/both houses
recess appointments
a way for president to bypass checks and balances; fill vacancies
montesquieu
thoughts of sep of powers
competition
mingling powers creates...
judicial review
marbury v. madison
sup court decides constitutionality of laws
everything
the president gets blamed for...
president pro tempore
to lead house when VP is gone
speaker of house
leads house
executive
presidency
vice presidency
exec dep'ts
legislative
congress -house and senate
speaker
pro tempore
judicial
sup court
lower courts
parties
are not part of the constitution
SLOW
framers designed system to be... not efficient
gridlock
gov can't function; like can't pass a law
congress powers
force - raise and reg military
money - taxes
declare war
reg foreign commerce
MAKE LAWS!
individual constituents, organized interests, district as a whole
congress must consider: (3)
delegates
reps who vote re preferences of constituency
trustees
reps who vote based on what they think is best for constituency
agency representation
constituents hire/fire reps
voting them in/out
bicameralism
house and senate system
25, 30
min age: house, senate
7, 9
citizenship: h, s
2,6
term: h s
incumbency
you run for office when you're in it already
high level incumbents
already have constituency, service, dependable, MONEY
more of adv. in senate -- bigger constituency
gerrymandering
apportioning voters in districts to favor one party
further politically separated districts
party cauces
party conference: party gets together to talk about candidates, strategize
elect house leaders, speaker, maj and minority, whips
standing committee:
permanent committee with power to propose and write leg about a subject
hierarchy: seniority
staff agencies
CRS, GAO, CBO
Congressional Research Service
research stuff!!!
FACTS of policies/proposals
General accounting office
financial/administrative affairs of gov agencies/programs
congressional budget office
economic costs of programs
caucus
group of reps/senators that shares opinions, interests, identifiers....
house policy committee
house: give committee assignments
senate steering committee
senate: give committee assignments
incumbency advantage
=$ contributions
=patronage
=constituent service
=(house) gerrymandering
earmarks
directs approved funds to be spent on specific projects
will benefit constituent directly
pork barrels
funds for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district
benefits constituents, for their election support
patronage
committee deliberation
1st step of bill death
happens in house, then senate
goes to standing committees
more it goes to - more unlikely to pass
house rules committee
determines rules that will govern action on a bill
closed/open rule
closed rule
limits floor debate/amendments
-favored by bill supporters
open rule
permits floor debate, easy amendments to weaken bill
-favored by bill opponents
debate
2nd step of bill death
speaker of h and maj senate leader recognize people to speak
filibuster
SENATE tactic to prevent action of leg you oppose:
just hold the floor until majority backs down since senators have unlimited speaking time
cloture
overrides filibuster
needs supermajority of 60 botes to end filibuster
basically this makes it so all legislations need 60 votes
conference committee
3rd step of bill death
joint committee; to reconcile House and senate versions
president action
4th step of bill death
vetoes or signs
veto
no to bill.
2/3 vote of each house
congress can override pres's veto with...
pocket veto
pres takes no formal action on bill - congress adjourns before 10 days, and he's vetoed it by not signing it
poison pill amendment
opponents add something to bill that makes original supporters withdraw support
discharge petition
bring the bill on floor w/o committee deliberation/consent of house/senate leader
non germanc
amendment that is added and has nothing to do with bill
party unity
maj leader promotes this
want errybody to vote to pass stuff

house has more bc majority leaders have more procedural control
house has
speaker
maj leader of both parties
senate has
VP
pres pro tempore
maj leader of both parties
constituency influence
reelect rep/senator!
but most don't know what policies rep supports, still rep choices scrutinized later
interest groups
have influence on reps - constituent followers - political action groups, corporations, etc, donate to incubents and reps make decisions that favor contributors
committee system
private voting
disguise decisions from contributors, less public
party vote
when in h or s half, one party, and half, opp party, take opposing positions

more party voting now than past
roll call votes
recorded
public
resources of party leaders
-committee assignments
-access to the floor
-whip system
-presidency
maintain CLARITY of party lines
logrolling
you scratch my back on this bill i'll scratch yours on this one
oversight
s and h: supervise exec thru hearings and investigations to locate inefficiency or abuse of power, fulfilling intent of law, to change/abolish program
appropriations
money congress gives to exec agency to spend - oversight during hearings
hearings
specific bill
oversight
investigations
broad problem: many bills
oversight
advice and consent
SENATE approves/rejects pres apptmts, treaties, etc
1/2 majority
appointment consent of senate needs...
top exec officers, ambassadors, fed judges
2/3 majority
treatie consent of senate needs...
executive agreements
like treaties w/o senate consent - loophole
impeachment
charging of pres. with treason, bribery, or high crime/misdemeanor - bring him/her before congress to determine guilt
guard 'gainst TYRANNY
grand jury
in impeachment, house is... and votes first needs 1/2 majority
trial jury
in impeachment, senate is... and votes second needs 2/3 majority
distributive tendency
bill is added to or revised to spread benefits widely among rep's districts
efficiency v. representation
stronger central leadership v. more representation?
expressed
powers granted to pres under constitution
war powers resolution
congress said pres must inform congress of military campaign and must ask permission... pres's ignore
executive agreement
treaty without congress
executive privilege
confidentiality of pres communications
line item veto
president can strike out provisions of bill - congress took away this power. now pres can accept or reject only entire bill
legislative initiative
pres's inherent power to bring legislative agenda/proposal before congress
executive order
regulation issued by pres thats like a law - no congress - agencies enforce
delegated
powers that congress has but gives to president
ex: rule making for laaws
inherent
powers president claims not expressed in constitution but inferred from it
ex. leg initiative
pres expressed
commander in chief
commission officer
pardon
convene congress
receive ambassadors
laws faithfully executed
yield executive powers
appoint officials
cabinet
administrators of major departments of federal gov, appted by pres with senate consent
-not in constitution
national security council
inner cabinet: foreign policy advisory council, white house staff is preferred by pres
white house staff
advisors to pres, crucial info source, insulates pres from outside info
executive office of president
permanent agencies that peform management tasks for pres, like OMB
institutional presidency
influence shape nat'l leg and flow of money
office of management and budget
prepare natl budget, reports on agency activities, part of all pres responsibility
budgeting now top down - sets budget guidelines for agencies as well as congress
VP
purpose 1: replace pres in vacancy
2: make tie breaking senate vote
pres expands power
popular mobilization
party
administration
administration power
EOP
regulatory review
executive orders
bureaucracy
complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, principles of organization employed by large scale institutions to coordinate work of personnel