exam 3 small details orgo 1

positive delta s
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Terms in this set (56)
primary carbocationA carbocation which has one carbon atom directly bonded to the positively charged carbon.secondary carbocationhas a positive charge on a secondary carbonbenzyllictertiary carbocationa carbocation with the positive charge on a tertiary carbonwhich is most stable carbocationtertiaryCarbocation hybridizationsp2carbocation geometrytrigonal planarcarboanion hybridizationsp3carboanion geometrytrigonal pyramidalkinetically favoredlower activation energythermodynamically favoredlower energynucleophileAn electron pair donor, electron richelectrophileAn electron pair acceptor (electron deficient)chiralA molecule or carbon atom bonded to four different groups and without a plane of symmetry; thus, it is not superimposable upon its mirror image and has an enantiomer, optically activeachiralA molecule that is superimposable on its mirror image, symmetrical, mesodelta hchange in enthalpyhow to find delta h(bonds broken)-(bonds formed)delta henthalpydelta sentropynegative delta hexothermicpositive delta hendothermicbonds breaking sys->surendothermicbond formation sur->sysexothermicdelta g equalsdelta H - T delta Sentropy+/- delta sunfavorednegative delta sfavoredpositive delta sKeqequilibrium constantKeq>1products are favoredKeq<1reactants favoredKeq=1equilibriumpositive delta greactants favorednegative delta gproducts favoreddelta g forthermodynamicsthermodynamicsspontaneitykineticsrate of reactioninitiationhomolytic cleavagepropagationaddition of pi bond hydrogen abstraction halogen abstraction eliminationterminationcouplingno net gain or loss of free radicals inpropagationnet increase in free radicalsinitiationnet decrease in number of free radicalsterminationspontaneousnegative delta gnonspontaneouspositive delta gpositive delta g isendergonic, non spontaneousnegative delta g isspontaneous, exergonic