100 terms

# Biology Lab Practical

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statistics
the science of analyzing masses of data
a statistic
a number to describe a set of data and its behavior. used for describing a sample of a larger body of information.
parameter
describes data from a larger body
variables
the physical features of objects of investigation. they must be measurable in order to be analyzed
frequency distributions
a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
Graphs
pictorial representation of data
line graphs
show trends or changes of one variable with respecto to another
bar graphs
compairs magnatude or size of one or more variables with respect to a single variable
pie graph
shows relative perportions or percentages of variables
dependent variable
depends on other conditions for its value
independent variable
determines the value of the dependent variable
y-axis
where the dependent variable is measured. this axis is verical.
x-axis
where the independent variable is measured. this axis is vertical.
data point
ordered pairs of numbers and results from pairing a dependent and independent variable
range
the highest value in a set of data minus the lowest value
x-coordinate
data value represented on the x-axis on a graph
y-coordinate
data value represented on the y-axis on a graph
interpolation
estimating values between data points plotted on a graph
extrapolation
used to project known data into an area not known, using known data as a guideline
intervals
a range of data values
catagories
grouping that can be represented by a frequency
frequency
number of data per catagory
histograms
bar graphs that display data in intervals
mean
the sum of all x-values devided by n (total number of individual values)
mode
the value that occurs most frequently in a set of data
normal distribution
when most of the data points are clustered around the mean and fewer occur as distance from the mean increases
skewed distribution
if data points seem to be clustered to the right or left of the mean
bimodal distribution
if data has two distinct clusters of data points
standard deviation
the measure, on average, of how much data values differ from the mean set. its the square root of the variance
deviation
the distance of each of the individual x-values is from the mean
n
the total number of variables measured
sample variance
the sum of squares value devided by n
variance
how widly dispersed the x-values are
scientific notation
a clear way af writing large numbers with many zeros
meniscus
when a substance begins to climbe the walls of its containor because of its cohesive and adhesive properties
kilo
10 to the 3rd power
hepta
10 to the 2nd power
deka
10 to the 1st power
meter, liter, gram
10 to the 0th power
deci
10 to the -1st power
centi
10 to the -2nd power
mili
10 to the -3rd power
micro
10 to the -6th power
nano
10 to the -9th power
how to convert c celcius to farenhight
F=(9/5C)+32
valence
the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell that an atom is willing to donate or take from other atoms
covalent bond
a chemical bond in which atoms share electrons
isomers
compounds made of the same elements but have different structures
structural formula
used to show a generalized structure of a molecule
polar
when one side of a molecule posesses a patial posative charge and a partial nagative charge on the other side, due to the greater electronagativity of some atoms in the molecule
types of organic molecules
hydrocarbons, carbohaydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
functional groups
groups of atoms that change the characteristics of a molecule. organic molecules are made by adding functional groups to hydrocarbons
the functional groups
hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl (ketone, aldehyde), methyl, amines, phosphates, sulfhydryl
ester bond
the chemical bond that holds lipids together
amino acids
the building blocks of proteins
peptide bond
the chemical bond that links amino acids together to form proteins
nucliotides
the building blocks of nucleic acids
RNA
a nucleic acid, the nucliotides of which are made up of ribose sugar, phosphate groups, and a nitrogenous base
a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a purine
guanine
a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a purine
cytosine
a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a pyrimidine
uracil
a nitrogenous base in only RNA, a pyrimidine
thymine
a nitrogenous base in only DNA, a pyrimidine
DNA
a nucleic acid that is used to store genetic information in a cell. DNA is made up of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
elements
the fundimental substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means
organic molecules
molecules that contain chains or rings of carbon
atom
the smalles unit of matter that makes up an element
inorganic molecules
lacking chains or rings of carbon
carbohydrates
composed of simple sugars, the most abondant organic molecule in life
monosaccharides
the monomers that make up carbohydrates
disaccharides
two monosaccharides attached together with a glycocidic linkage
polysaccharides
composed of many monosaccharides
lipids
many fatty acid chains linked together by glycerol
proteins
composed of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
nucleic acids
made up of many nucliotide monomers
ATP
a nucleic acid that functions as an energy carrier throughout the cell
regent of carbohydrate test
iodine
regent for saccaride test
benedict's solution
regent for lipid test
sudan IV
regent for protein test
biuret
differentially permeable
a membrane which ahs the ability to let some molecules pass through while excluding others
dialysis tubing
is used to seperate molesules according to size, has a differentially permeable membrane
acids
substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when desolved in water
bases
substances that releas hydroxide ions (OH-) when desolved in water
pH scale
measures hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
metabolism
the sum of all the chemical reactions taking place in living cells
enzymes
organic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process. composed mostly of proteins
catalysts
speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process. lower the amount of activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to start.
inhibitors
slow down or stop chemical reactions
course of reaction
a diagram to show relationships in chemical reacions
reactant A
at the beginning of a chemical reaction, and breaks into two parts: product B and C
product B
one of the products resulting from reactant A
product C
one of the products resulting from reactant A
activation energy
the extra energy needed to start a chemical reaction
the properties of enzymes
1) made up of proteins and have a globular 3-D shape
2) will catalyze only one type of chemical reaction
3) act at normal cell temp
4) not used up in reactions, therefore they are reusable
5) can be inhibited by other chemicals that react with them and cause them to change their shape
the reactant or substrate in this reaction
hydrogen proxide (2 H2 O2)
products in this reaction
water (2 H2 O) and oxygen gas (O2)
things that can cause enzymes to denature
high temperatures (boiling water bath), acidic and basic environments
the catalysts used in these tests
catalase (organic enzyme), MnO2 (inorganic catalyst)
elements found in the human body
element: symbol: % of human body:
carbon C 18
hydrogen H 10
oxygen O 65
nitrogen N 3