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Chapter 9 Review
Mr. Cawlfield - Henderson County Early College High School.
Terms in this set (97)
What is another name for political party?
Who warned against the very harmful effects of the spirit of the party?
Pres. George Washington ( in his Farewell Address in 1796)
The founding fathers feared what about the political parties?
They feared they would create a permanent disability in the country.
What is a political party?
Is an organized group of elected officials and supporters that promote certain principles, policies, and candidates.
What do political parties provide?
They provide a means by which public opinion about public issues may be expressed and identified.
What are some public issues?
4. the Economy
6. Gay Rights
7. Capital Punishment
Where the three functions of the political party?
1.Gather people with similar views and values into a movement
2. to govern in a predictable way
3. to compete in elections
TRUE OR FALSE
In all three functions of political parties, party simplify political life by focusing on general agreements and disagreements.
What was Thomas Jefferson's group called?
Democratic - Republican party
What did Jefferson's Democratic - Republic party believe in?
Limit the power of the national government and give more power to state governments.
What was in Alexander Hamilton's group called?
What did Hamilton's party believe in?
Favored a strong national government. Believed that individual rights were at risk if the government was too weak.
What year did the Democratic - Republicans split?
What two major parties existed until 1850?
The Whigs and the Democrats
Some members from what two political groups form the Republican Party in 1854?
Democrats and Whigs (National Republicans)
What issue did some members of the newly formed Republican Party oppose?
TRUE OR FALSE
Republicans agreed that slavery should be in the northern territories.
False - Republicans did not agree on whether slavery should be abolished in southern states but they did agree that it had to be kept out of the northern territories.
Who was the first Republican president?
Abraham Lincoln (1860)
The Republican Party had many different names, what were they?
1. The Fusion Party
2. People's party
3. Independent party
What is party platform?
The parties set of principles and policies which express the beliefs and ideas of which the party stand for.
What are planks?
Major parts of platform - what the party claims it will do if it wins. (Example - stronger pollution control standards may be a plank in a political platform)
What is a party agenda?
Public issues it plans to attack and how it plans to attack them.
What is a one-party system?
A single, dominate party (example - China - Communist Party)
Name some results of a one-party system.
1.Only party candidates can run for office
2. Only party members fill government positions
3. Elections are nonexistent
4. Not a democratic system
5. main job of members is to recruit new members, maintain party discipline, and carry out party orders
What is a two-party system?
A system where government power shifts between two dominant parties.
TRUE OR FALSE
The United States has a multi-party system.
False. The U.S. has a two-party system, all those third parties and other minor parties may be put on the ballot.
What ways do their parties influenced politics?
1.They often promote social economic and moral issues that are first unpopular or hotly debated
2. Form around leaders who cannot get support from one of the two major parties
3. Influence elections outcomes, even if they fail to win
Name some obstacles to third parties.
1.Rarely when major elections
2. Must obtain large number of voter signatures in order to get on the ballot
3. Difficulty raising sufficient amount of money to competing campaigns against major party candidates
What is a major party system?
They are democratic systems which allows for three or more competing parties.
Name the country with a multiparty system.
1.Canada (three major parties)
2. Germany (five major parties)
3. Israel (more than 20)
What is the situation that can occur with multi-party systems?
Political instability because too many competing interest of the party.
What is the general spirit of the Republican Party?
Conservative - emphasize individual freedoms and limiting government
What is the general spirit of the Democratic Party?
Liberal - emphasizes community and strong government involvement to solve social problems
What is a radical (political classification)?
Someone who wants to change conditions fundamentally (changing the entire political or economic system).
What is a moderate (political classification)?
Someone who believes that reform can come from within the existing political system.
What is a reactionary (political classification)?
Someone who tends to be suspicious of or against change (calls for the return of the ways society was in the past).
When they say political parties have the potential to turn into political machines, what does that mean?
It means this type of party organization, which is led by a single boss who controls the local government, tends to be unresponsive to the voters. It gets and keeps much of their power through patronage.
What is patronage?
Giving political offices and jobs in exchange for support
What were/are some American political parties?
Federalist (1789 - 1820)
Democratic-Republican (1796 - 1832)National Republican (1828 - 1836)Democratic (1832 - present)
Whig (1834 - 1864)
Republican (1856 - present)
What did the Federalist political party believe in?
A strong central government
Why did the Democratic-Republican form?
To oppose Federalist policies
What was a reason why the Republican party formed?
To oppose the Democratic party's support of the institution of slavery.
Why did Washington not want political parties to form?
He feared they would create a permanent disunity in the country.
Why are some political parties called third parties?
That is because the United States is said to have a two-party system.
Why do the two major parties seem so similar?
1. Both try to appeal to as many voters as possible. By adopting moderate and mainstream positions and avoiding extreme or radical positions the major parties hope to attract votes and win elections.
2. The parties are also similar because the majority of American people generally agree about many political and social issues.
What were the first two major political parties in the United States?
In 1830 a new party rose to compete with the Democrats, who were they?
The Whigs (Or National Republicans)
Helps raise funds for the presidential elections and organizes the party's national convention and is made up of representative from every states.
What is the chair person's job for the national committee?
National party chairperson - major jobs is to manage the office, to direct committee staff, and lead fund-raising efforts
is an election in which voters choose candidates to represnt each party in general elections.
What are bribes and/or kickbacks?
TRUE OR FALSE - Political machines are NOT harmful to the communities?
Two major parties are organized at what levels?
local, state, and national
TRUE OR FALSE - All the levels have roughly the same political beliefs and they are united in the ultimate goal to help the party wins elections to as many offices as possible
What is the purpose of the National Committee?
National Committee helps raise funds for presidential elections and organizes the party's national convention; its members are made up of representatives from every state
What is a ward?
Ward - several geographical connected precincts making up a larger election unit
What is the most important responsibilities of the National Committee?
National convention is one of the most important responsibilities of the national committee.
What is a caucus?
What is the delegrate's first job and is that job hard or easy and why?
Delegates' first job is to write the platform which is sometimes difficult because party including members have a wide range of positions on key issues.
Political candidates seek what from important individuals such as the president?
endorsements or significant public statements of support
When is the National Convention held and what is one of it's purposes?
It is held every four years and is where the party members nominate their candidate for president and vice president
Who nominates the parties presidential candidate?
Who make up the campaign committee and what is their purpose?
Members of Congress make up the campaign committees and work to elect party members and raise money
Each major party how many state committee organizations?
What is the State committees focus?
They are focused on electing party candidates to state offices (Gov., Atty. Gen., state legislators and others) they also work to elect their party's candidates to national offices
What is a Precinct?
geographic area that contains a specific number of voters...
Each precinct appoints___(what)____ whose job is to organize other party members during campaigns and encourage voters on Election Day.
a precinct captain
What are the largest political unit within the state?
TRUE OR FALSR - One party have county committees.
FALSE - Both parties have county committee.
If the county is large, is there any collaboration with county chairperson and other officials?
Yes..If county large, state party leaders such as Gov. or U.S. Senator may consult with the county chairperson about important appointment such as judgeship.
Political machines often serve useful purpose by providing the citizens with jobs, food, fuel, and help with medical care in exchange for what?
What was one of the most famous and notorious political machines mentioned in your book?
New York City's Tammany Hall; ruled New York late 1800s or early 1900s; leader William Marcy "Boss" Tweed; eventually many members of Tweet ended up in prison
What is are Political Action Committees (PACs)?
Political action Committees (PACs) are private groups that attempt to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation that favors the PAC.
What is a disadvantage of PACs?
Fairness is jeopardize because the wealthy can contribute more and have more influence.
What is the advantage of using public funding or government funding for campaigns?
It lessens this advantage of the wealthy and PACs
Why is it important to build grassroots support for a party?
It would keep them informed on how local political sentiments are running as well as know what issues worry their neighbors.
TRUE OR FALSE - You need to join a political party in the U.S. to vote?
When is the busiest time for political parties?
Parties are the only organization that selects candidates for public office through what process?
The nomination process
What is a general election?
When a state or nation chooses officeholders and votes on ballot measures.
What is a primary election?
When registered voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a later election.
What is a direct primary
is an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in general election
What is a Recall election?
When an elected offical can be removed from office by a vote of the people however it is put in motion by a petition.
There are two main forms of direct primary?
Open and closed primaries
What is an open primary?
is when voters do not need to declare their party affiliation (preference) to vote for the party's nominees.
What are the two widely used methods of voting for a candidate?
plurality voting and majority voting
The candidate receiving the most amounts of votes wins even if this means less than 50% of the votes cast
The winner received is more than 50% of the total votes
What happens if the candidate (more than two) does not receive more than 50% of the total votes?
If no candidate receive more that 50% then the party hold a runoff primary between the two leading candidates with the most votes; the winner becomes party's candidate in the general elections.
Unaffiliated candidates with neither can get on the ballot for general election in most states how?
What is a petition(to get an unaffiliated candidate on the ballot)?
A petition is when enough qualified voters sign a paper declaring support for a candidate to go on the ballot for general election.
What is the difference between an open and a closed primary?
Closed primary is when declared members of a party are allowed to vote for that party's nominee where as an open primary is voter's do not have to declare their party affiliation (preference) to vote for a party nominees.
In addition to nominating candidates for office, political parties have other responsibilities. What are they?
Select and support candidates
Carry the message of the people to the government
Operate the government
Act as a watchdog over government
Serve as a link between different levels and branches of government
What is a grassroots movement and
What happens if it become enough?
Grassroots is the political movement that begins with people is. If it becomes strong enough, its ideals will probably taken over by political party
What is a watchdog(regarding politics)
the party that is out of power watches the action of the party in power and offers its own solutions to problems.
Why do watchdogs believe they can attracts voters?
Competition between parties forced the parties empowered to pay attention to the will of the people
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