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loyalty to a particular region; led to civil war in 1860

Commonwealth vs. Hunt

a case in Massachusetts that stated peaceful unions could negotiate labor contracts with employers

Industrial Revolution

a revolution in economy in which the North manufactured and had an increased population

Daniel Webster

said that the the divisions of the Union into North, South and West could tear apart the United States and could become dangerous

urbanization and urban life

populations grew in the North and attracted even more people from other countries

new cities

small villages such as Buffalo, Chicago and Detroit became large cities because they were key transportation points

Irish and the potato famine

a potato famine drove many of the Irish to the United States and moved into the Northern states, and joined many politics and parties


many came in the 40s and 50s and moved Westward; supporters of education and opponents of slavery

Old Northwest

consisted of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; came from land ceded to the national government; was unsettled but soon people inhabited


reasons for immigration:
1) development of inexpensive ocean transportation, 2) famines and revolutions in Europe, 3) growing reputation of the United States


native-born Americans who didn't like the large number of immigrants

American party

the Know-Nothing party that was anti-foreign and disliked immigrants

King Cotton

the primary cash crop in the South that many people depended on; was now more affordable because of the cotton gin and slaves

"the peculiar institution"

slavery; was called peculiar because slave owners knew this was wrong yet still defended it

Denmark Vesey and Nat turner

two slaves that led slaves revolts against their slave owners

slavery and free African-Americans

many African-Americans became free and stayed free; they moved to the North but still didn't have equal rights

the West

the definition of the West keep changing because the United States kept expanding

the frontier

the frontier constantly shifted, but the concept remained the idea of moving Westward and having a fresh start

Native American removal

by 1850, the majority of Native Americans had to move West of the Mississippi River; this was only a temporary respite

Great Plains

horses helped Native Americans get to the Great Plains; improved lives

white settlers

these settlers lived on the Western frontier and in log cabins; led hardworking and boring lives

environmental damage

exhausted the soil and trappers and hunters decimated the beaver and the buffalo to the brink of extinction

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