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Commonwealth vs. Hunt
a case in Massachusetts that stated peaceful unions could negotiate labor contracts with employers
a revolution in economy in which the North manufactured and had an increased population
said that the the divisions of the Union into North, South and West could tear apart the United States and could become dangerous
urbanization and urban life
populations grew in the North and attracted even more people from other countries
small villages such as Buffalo, Chicago and Detroit became large cities because they were key transportation points
Irish and the potato famine
a potato famine drove many of the Irish to the United States and moved into the Northern states, and joined many politics and parties
many came in the 40s and 50s and moved Westward; supporters of education and opponents of slavery
consisted of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; came from land ceded to the national government; was unsettled but soon people inhabited
reasons for immigration:
1) development of inexpensive ocean transportation, 2) famines and revolutions in Europe, 3) growing reputation of the United States
the primary cash crop in the South that many people depended on; was now more affordable because of the cotton gin and slaves
"the peculiar institution"
slavery; was called peculiar because slave owners knew this was wrong yet still defended it
slavery and free African-Americans
many African-Americans became free and stayed free; they moved to the North but still didn't have equal rights
the frontier constantly shifted, but the concept remained the idea of moving Westward and having a fresh start
Native American removal
by 1850, the majority of Native Americans had to move West of the Mississippi River; this was only a temporary respite
these settlers lived on the Western frontier and in log cabins; led hardworking and boring lives
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