32 terms

Fundamentals of Business Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Employee Behavior
Pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organization's effectiveness
Performance Behaviors
Total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects employees to display
Organizational Citizenship
Positive behaviors that do not directly contribute to the bottom line
Counterproductive Behaviors
Behaviors that detract from organizational performance
Absenteeism
An employee's not showing up for work
Turnover
Annual percentage of an organization's workforce that leaves and must be replaced
Individual Differences
Personal attributes that vary from one person to another
Personality
Relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another
"Big five" Personality Traits
Five fundamental personality traits especially relevant to organizations
Emotional Intellegence
Extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and process social skills
Attitudes
Person's beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or people
Job Satisfaction
Degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs
Organizational Commitment
Individual's identification with the organization and its mission
Psychological Contract
Set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she willl contribute to an organization and what the organization will in return provide the employee
Person-job Fit
Extent to which a person's contributions and the organization's inducements match one another
Motivation
Set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways
Classical Theory of Motivation
Theory holding that workers are motivated solely by money
Hawthrone Effect
Tendency for productivity to increase when workers believe they are recieving special attention from management
Theory X
Theory of motivation that people are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive
Hierarchy of Human Needs Model
Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fufilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs
Two-Factor Theory
Theory of motivation holding that job satisfaction depends on two factors, hygiene and motivation
Expectancy Theory
Theory of motivation holding that people are motivated to work toward rewads that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining
Equity Theory
Theory of motivation holding that people evaluate their treatment by the organization realtive to the treatment of others
Positive Reinforcement
Reward that follows desired behaviors
Punishment
Unpleasant consequences of an undesirable behavior
Management by Objectives
Set of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluating progress
Participative Management and Empowerment
Method of increasing job satifsfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company
Job Enrichment
Method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities
Job Redesign
Method of increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs
Job Sharing
Method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing two or more people to share a single full time job
Flextime Programs
Method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work schedules on a daily or weekly basis
Telecommuting
Form of flexitime that allows people to perform some or all of a job away from standard office settings