Joints of the Lower Limb

Hip joint
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Terms in this set (77)
Acetabular labrumrim of fibrocartilage attached to margin of acetabulum. It deepens the socket of acetabulum for greater fit for femur headTransverse acetabular ligamentcrosses over acetabular notchJoint capsuleencapsulating sleeve for joints; composed externally of fibrous connective tissue layer and internally by synovial membraneLigament of head of femuralso called ligamentum teres femoris or round ligament of the femur. Functions to conduct the artery to head of femur (branch of obturator artery)Knee jointtibiofemoral jointarticulating bones of knee jointdistal femur, patella, proximal tibiaClassification of knee jointbiaxial, (modified) hinge type of synovial joint, diarthrosisStability of knee jointunstable but supported by many ligamentsMovements of knee jointflexion and extension, but slight rotationLateral tibiofemoral jointlateral tibial condyle and lateral femoral condyleMedial tibiofemoral jointmedial tibial condyle and medial femoral condylePatellofemoral jointpatella and femurPatellar ligamentstrong, attaches from apex of patella to tibial tuberosity, maintains alignment of patella relative to femurTibial collateral ligamentSupports medial side of knee joint, firmly attached to medial meniscus, weaker and commonly damagedFibular collateral ligamentsupports lateral side of knee joint, not attached to lateral meniscus, separated from by popliteus tendon, strong, cord-likeAnterior cruciate ligamentattaches to tibia anteriorly, prevents anterior sliding of tibia under femor, taut when knee is extended, prevents hyperextension of knee joint, weaker than posterior cruciate ligament; more commonly damaged, attaches from anterior intercondylar area of tibia to lateral femoral condylePosterior cruciate ligamentattaches to tibia posteriorly, attaches to posterior intercondylar area of tibia and inserts on medial condyle of femur, prevents posterior sliding of tibia under femur, taught when is knee is flex, prevents hyperflexion of knee joint, strong ligament, main stabilizing ligament for femurMeniscuscrescent-shaped fibrocartilage pad, deepen articular surface between tibia and femur, shock absorptionMedial meniscuspart of it is attached to tibial collateral ligament; there can be commonly damagedLateral meniscusnot attached to fibular collateral ligament (popliteus tendon passes between lateral meniscus and ligament)Bursae of knee jointbursa acts like a cushion pad between skin, bone, tendons during joint movementsKnee joint passively lockswhen knee fully extended while standingContraction of popliteus muscle _____ knee so knee joint can flexunlocksPopliteus tendonattached to lateral femoral condyle, rotates femur laterally 5 degrees on tibial plateauAnkle Jointtalocrural jointArticulating bones of ankle jointTibia, Fibula, and TalusClassification of ankle jointuniaxial, hinge type of synovial jointStability of ankle jointligamentsmovements of ankle jointplantarflexion and dorsiflexionMalleolar mortisedistal tibia and distal fibula form this that articulates with trochlea of talusLateral ligament of anklelateral collateral ligament, reinforce lateral aspect of ankle joint, stabilizes ankle joint during foot inversion, frequently injuredMedial Ligament of Anklealso known as deltoid ligament or medial collateral ligament of ankle, strong, four ligaments reinforce medial aspect of ankle joint, stabilizes ankle joint during foot eversion3 ligaments that make up lateral ligament of anklePosterior talo-fibular ligament Anterior talo-fibular ligament Calcaneo-fibular ligament4 ligaments that make up medial ligament of ankleposterior tibiotalar ligament Tibiocalcaneal ligament Anterior tibiotalar ligament Tibionavicular ligamentDorsiflexion of anklecauses toes and foot to move up and heel moves downwardPlantarflexion of anklewill cause toes and foot to move downward and heel moves upwardhallux as what two phalangesproximal and distalSubtalar jointarticulation between talus and calcaneus, also called tabocalneal joint, inversion and eversion of foot occur hereInversionturns sole of foot inwardEversionturns sole of foot outwardSpraininjury to ligaments (stressed beyond normal capacity)Strainstretched or partially torn (muscle and tendon)Ligament sprainany ligament in lower limb can rupture if enough force appliedmechanism of injury to ACLcan be internal rotation trauma of knee with foot fixed on groundOsteoarthritisbone ends rub together and thinned cartilageRheumatoid arthritisBone erosion, swollen inflamed and synovial membraneWhat is a complication in femoral neck fractures?necrosis of the femoral headWhat results in avascular necrosis of femoral headmedial circumflex femoral arteryCongenital dislocation of hip jointperson born with femoral head not properly located in acetabulum, bilateral; limbs shortened, inability to abduct thighAcquired dislocation of hip jointDue to high-impact trauma, affected limb appears shorter and medially rotatedPosterior dislocation of hip jointstrong force pushes femoral head posteriorly out of normal position with acetabulum, joint capsule and ligaments rupture, sciatic nerve may be injured as a result of a posterior hip dislocationDrawer testtesting for anterior/posterior cruciate ligamentanterior movement of tibiapositive anterior drawer sign, ruptured ACLPosterior movement of tibiapositive posterior drawer sing, ruptured PCLMechanism of unhappy triad injuryhit to lateral side of extended knee or excessive lateral twisting of flexed kneeUnhappy triad injurytorn anterior cruciate ligament, torn tibial (medial) collateral ligament, torn medial meniscusGenu Varum (bow-leg)medial angulation of tibia relative to abnormally vertical femur Weight-bearing more on medial knee (stresses medial joint cartilages, medial meniscus) and stresses fibular collateral ligament on lateral sideGenu valgum (knock-knee)lateral angulation of tibia relative to femur Weight-bearing more on lateral knee joint (stresses lateral joint cartilages, and lateral meniscus) and tibial collateral ligamentPatellar Dislocationpatella dislocates laterallyPatellofemoral syndromeRunner's knee, pain/inflammation deep to patella due to abnormal gliding of patella over surface of femur, causes excessive downhill running, direct trauma to patella, osteoarthritis, weakness of vastus medialisBursitisan inflammation of a bursa caused by friction, prolonged compression at joint, direct blow or falling onto a jointLateral Ankle sprainmost common, lateral ligament of ankle injured when foot is forcefully inverted, anterior talofibular ligament component is most commonly tornMedial ankle sprainmedial ligament of ankle injured when foot forcefully evertedTalipes Equinovarus (clubfoot)deformity of the foot, congenital condition, walking painful due to bearing weight on lateral surface of foot, Treatment: series of casts/braces or surgeryClubfoot positionsankle plantarflexed, foot inverted, forefoot adductedPes Planus (flat foot)absense of normal supportive arch of foot "Fallen arches"Hallux ValgusLateral deviation (valgus) deformity of big toe (hallux), deformity occurs at 1st metatarsophalangeal joint