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What happens in the gamma-glutamyl cycle?
glutamate breaks off glutathione and escorts amino acids into cells
What amino acids is skeletal muscle able to oxidize?
leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine
Because muscle is lacking glucose 6 phosphatase, how does it release glucose into the blood?
the cori cycle and the glucose-alanine cycle
What are the steps of the cori cycle?
muscle glycogen ->glucose 6P ->pyruvate->lactic acid ->to liver ->pyruvate->glucose -> to blood
What are the steps of the glucose-alanine cycle?
muscle glycogen->glucose 6P->pyruvate->alanine->to liver->pyruvate->glucose ->to blood
What are the steps of the glutamine-glutamate cycle?
muscle imports glutamate, muscle turns glutamate into glutamine, glutamine goes to cells needing nitrogen, glutamine turns back into glutamate, glutamate goes back to the muscle
How does muscle turn glutamate into glutamine?
glutamine synthetase adds nitrogen to glutamate, nitrogen is taken from amino acids
What amino acids are not released in proportion to their relative occurrence in muscle protein?
leucine, isoleucine, valine (BCAAs), glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, glutamine, and alanine
What amino acids are released in amounts less than what is taken in?
BCAAs, glutamate, aspartate, and asparagine
Describe the uptake of BCAA and glutamate after eating:
large uptake: more than 90% of muscle amino acid uptake
What inhibits pyruvate degradation during starvation?
BCAAs, allowing pyruvate(lactate or alanine) to leave for gluconeogenesis
What is the function of alanine aminotransferase in muscle?
to take the NH3 group from gluatamte and give it to nitrogen, forming alanine and a-ketoglutarate
What is the effect of low intensity exercise on skeletal muscle glutamate concentration?
What is the effect of moderate intensity exercise on skeletal muscle glutamate concentration?
40% decrease during the first minute
What is the effect of moderate intensity exercise on skeletal muscle alanine concentration?
40% increase in first minute
What is the effect of moderate intensity exercise on skeletal muscle glutamine concentration?
What happens to glutamate intake in the initial phase of moderately intense exercise?
increases 1-3 fold
What happens to glutamine and alanine intake in the initial phase of moderately intense exercise?
increases 2-9 fold
What do we need to meet the ATP demands during exercise?
more TCA intermediates to combine with oxaloacetate, malate, succinate and fumarate all increase 5-6 fold
What is responsible for the elevation of TCA cycle intermediates?
glycogen and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Why is nitrogen going to the liver?
ate too much protein, gluconeogenesis (exercise, starvation, not eating carbs)
What is the function of AST?
transfers amino groups from glutamate to oxaloacetate forming aspartate, glutamate+OAA to a-ketoglutarate + aspartate
What is the function of carbamoyl phosphatase?
catalyzes CO2+NH3+2ATP to carbamoyl phosphate, the entry point of the urea cycle
What are the four intermediates of the urea cycle?
citrulline, argininosuccinate, aginine, and ornithine
What are the products of the urea cycle, starting with ornithine?
ornithine+carbamoyl phosphate = citrulline +aspartate= argininosuccitate-fumarate= arginine +H2O= urea
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