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Adv. Chemistry - Organic Chemistry Unit Review
Terms in this set (100)
The simplest organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
This is a hydrocarbon which only has single covalent bonds.
These contain any number of carbon atoms, one after another, in a chain.
A group of hydrocarbons that has a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound in the series to the next.
condensed structural formula
In this formula, some bonds and/or atoms are left out of the structural formula.
An atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen on a parent hydrocarbon molecule.
The longest continuous carbon chain of a branched-chain hydrocarbon molecule.
A hydrocarbon substituent is called this.
branched chain alkane
An alkane with one or more alkyl groups is called this.
Organic compounds that contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom.
Compounds that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds are called this.
These are hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double covalent bonds.
These are hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple covalent bonds.
This is a group of hydrocarbons that contain a straight-chain, branched-chain hydrocarbons, alkenes and alkynes.
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures.
Compounds that have the same molecular formula, but atoms are joined together in a different order.
Molecules in which the atoms are joined in the same order, but the positions of the atoms in space are different.
These molecules have atoms joined in the same order, but differ in the orientation of groups around a double bond.
In this geometric isomer, the methyl groups are on the opposite side of the double-bond.
In this geometric isomer, the methyl groups are on the same side of the double-bond.
A carbon with 4 different atoms or groups of atoms attached is called this.
These are compounds that contain a hydrocarbon ring.
This is an organic molecule that contains a benzene ring or other ring in which the bonding is like that of benzene.
A controlled process in which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful molecules.
The name of the saturated alkane with 5 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 8 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 4 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 6 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 1 carbon atom.
The name of the saturated alkane with 2 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 3 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 7 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 9 carbon atoms.
The name of the saturated alkane with 10 carbon atoms.
How many single bonds are in propane?
2 shared electrons
What does a bond stand for which is represented with a dash?
How many covalent bonds will a carbon atom form?
It is non-polar.
Describe the polarity of a hydrocarbon.
straight-chain or branched-chain
What two ways can carbon atoms be arranged in an alkane?
Mineral oil is non-polar, water is polar. Since like dissolves like, these won't dissolve in each other.
Why will mineral oil not dissolve in water?
An asymmetric carbon has 4 substituents.
How can an asymmetric carbon be identified?
In 1-hexene, the double carbon-carbon bond is attached between the 1rst and 2nd carbon and in 3-hexene, the double carbon-carbon bond is attached between 3rd and 4th carbon.
What is the different between 1-hexene and 3 hexene?
In benzene, carbon atoms are shared evenly around the ring with alternating double bonds in an extremely stable arrangement.
Describe the bonding between carbon atoms in a benzene ring.
When crude oil is refined, the different fractions of each type are separated by differences in their ______________, in a process called fractional distillation.
oil, natural gas
The process in which ancient sea-creatures died and were buried under sediment where heat, pressure and lots of time turned it into _________ and ____________.
The process in which layers of vegetation was buried under water in a swampy region and heat, pressure and lots of time turned it into ____________.
natural gas and petroleum
What is the principal source of aliphatic hydrocarbons?
What is the principal source of aromatic hydrocarbons?
What is the general formula of an alkane?
What is the general formula of an alkene?
What is the general formula of an alkyne?
No. Only molecules with at least one asymmetric carbon have optical isomers.
Do all molecules have optical isomers? If not, explain?
During the cracking process, catalyst are used to break long chain hydrocarbons into more useful short-chain hydrocarbons.
How are catalyst used in refining petroleum?
anthracite coal, bituminous coal, lignite, peat
Rank from hardest to softest? bituminous coal, peat, anthracite coal, and lignite.
The sulfur mixes with moisture in the atmosphere and turns into sulfurous and sulfuric acid rain.
Why is sulfur, which is often found in coal mined in Illinois a bad thing when we burn it to make electricity?
di means that 2 methyl group are both attached to the 2nd carbon in the parent chain.
What does the prefix, di, mean in 2,2-dimethylpentane?
What is the proper name for 1,3-dimethylpropane (which is incorrectly named)?
Because it can be numbered as 2-methylbutane and have the same structure with the lowest number on the substituent.
Why can't you have 3-methylbutane?
What is the common name for ethyne?
butane, pentane, hexane
What are the next 3 higher homologs of propane?
2C8H18 + 25O2 -----> 16CO2 + 18H2O
What is the balance chemical equation for the burning of octane?
meth - implies one carbon, and ene means a carbon-carbon double covalent bond. You can't have a carbon-carbon double bond with 1 carbon atom.
Why can't you draw methene?
If you flip around the molecule's numbering you will see that the proper name is 3-methylhexane.
What is wrong with the name 4-methylhexane?
The 2 ethyl substituents, if numbered from the opposite direction will give lower numbers. It should actually be called 1,3-diethylcyclopentane.
What is wrong with the structure of 1,4-diethylcyclopentane?
Since you have 2 methyl substituents, there should be a di in front of the methyl in the name.
What is wrong with the structure of 3,3-methyl-4-ethyloctane.
The first step in naming branched-chain alkanes is to find the ____________ chain in the molecule.
When writing the name of organic compound, you must put ______ between numbers and ______ between words so that there are no blank spaces.
No....they are numbered sometimes in the opposite direction in order to have the lowest possible numbers in the name.
Are hydrocarbon structural formulas always numbered from left to right like you read a book?
How many hydrogen atoms are in pentane?
The longest chain of carbons in a molecular formula of an aliphatic hydrocarbon is called the ___________ chain.
Parent alkene chains are numbered so that the carbons of the double bond have the ______________ possible numbers.
Isomers have the same molecular structure but different molecular _____________.
Models is optical isomers are like _________ images, which cannot be superimposed.
The benzene molecule consists of _______ carbons joined in a ring with a(n) _________ atom joined to each carbon.
The two structures that can be drawn of benzene with the different locations of the double bonds shows a property called _____________.
The location of the substituents in a benzene ring can be ortho or _________ disubstitution.
The location of the substituents in a benzene ring can be para or _________ disubstitution.
The location of the substituents in a benzene ring can be meta or _________ disubstitution.
Hydrocarbon compounds with rings are _________aromatic hydrocarbons.
Aromatic compounds are sometimes pleasant ____________.
When the benzene ring is used as a substituent it is called a __________ group.
80% of natural gas is ________________.
Petroleum is refined by the ______ of it into fractions according to boiling point.
When you have incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon, you can produce a poisonous gas called _____________, which can lead to death if inhaled.
__________ coal has the highest carbon content, burns and produces the most energy pound for pound.
How many single bonds does hexane have?
Gasoline tends to be made of alkanes with __-__ carbon atoms.
Kerosene is composed of alkanes with __-__ carbon atoms.
The old-fashioned name for an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Coal that is more than 80% carbon content is ____________.
Formula and name for the smallest possible cycloalkane.
Name of hydrocarbon C8H16
Name for C3H4.
Formula for benzene.
Formula for cyclohexane.
Formula for nonyne.
A method of naming organic compounds.
gases with low boiling points.
Hydrocarbons with low molecular masses are generally _____________.
2C6H14 + 19O2 ---> 12CO2 + 14H2O
Write the balanced chemical formula for the combustion of liquid hexane.
The name of the alkyl group with 2 carbons is __________.
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