:) 22 ch 25

The preoptic area (of the hypothalamus) receives input from__________.

Heat-promoting center
Heat-losing center
proprioceptors in the skin

The preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) serves as an essential brain region to coordinate sleep and body temperature

25.9 Regulation of Body Temperature
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 18
Terms in this set (18)

Potassium is needed for generation and conduction of action potential signals in neurons and muscle fibers. Cobalt is required for erythropoiesis. Sulfur is a component of hormones and vitamins, and regulates several body activities. Manganese activates enzymes, is required for hemoglobin synthesis, urea formation, growth, reproduction, lactation, bone formation, inhibition of cell damage, and possibly production and release of insulin.
substrate level
(Substrate Phosphorylation)

There are three mechanisms of phosphorylation: substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. An example of substrate-level phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate group to an ADP molecule to generate an ATP molecule. Oxidative phosphorylation is the removal of electrons from organic compounds to pass them through an electron transport chain to oxygen molecules. Photophosphorylation only occurs in chlorophyll-containing plant cells or bacteria that contain light-absorbing pigments.

A kilocalorie is often used to express the energy content of foods (1 kcal = 1,000 cal). A calorie (cal) is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gr of water by 1 degree Celsius. Calorigenic effect is when thyroid hormones increase BMR by stimulating cellular respiration. The basal state refers to the metabolic rate measured when the body is in a quiet, resting and fasting state.
If both protein and calories are deficient in the diet, then the disorder ____________ can occur.marasmus Malnutrition is an imbalance of total caloric intake or certain nutrients. There are two types of malnutrition; marasmus, and kwashiorkor. Kwashiorkor is a disorder that is caused by deficient protein intake. Kwashiorkor disorder is characterized by edema, low blood pressure, low pulse rate, enlarged liver, and sometimes mental retardation. Marasmus results from inadequate protein and caloric intake. Characteristics of marasmus include low weight, dry skin, thin hair, and muscle wasting.Which of the following are NOT considered antioxidants?vitamin K vitamin A + C + E and Beta carotene Antioxidants are vitamins that can inactivate oxygen free radicals. Vitamins C, E and beta-carotene are antioxidant vitamins. Vitamins D and K are fat-soluble vitamins.Which of the following do NOT require phosphorus? normal muscle and nerve activity blood clotting synthesis of DNA and RNA formation of bones and teeth synthesis of enzymesblood clotting Phosphorous is a mineral important for bone and teeth formation. About 80% of the phosphorus is found in bone and teeth as phosphate salts. It also has a role in muscle contraction and nerve activity. It is also the component of many enzymes, DNA and RNA, and it's important in energy transfer in the form of ATP.According to many nutrient experts, how much of our calories should come from proteins?12-15% According to the experts, the recommended distribution of calories is about 12-15% from proteins, 50-60% from carbohydrates, less than 15% from simple sugars, less than 30% from fats, and no more than 10% from saturated fats.Which of the following are NOT fat-soluble vitamins? vitamin E vitamin K vitamin D vitamin C vitamin A vitamin D1vitamin C Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E and K, and can be stored in cells, particularly hepatocytes. Water soluble vitamins, including several vitamins B and vitamin C are dissolved in body fluids, and excess quantities are excreted in the urine rather than stored in the cells.Which of the following best describes the relationship between catabolism and anabolism?Catabolic reactions provide the energy for anabolic reactions. Catabolic reactions are exergonic, meaning they produce more energy than they consume. Anabolic reactions are endergonic, meaning they consume more energy than they produce. The energy produced by catabolic reactions is consumed by anabolic reactions.What reactions does ATP link together? canabolic synthesis endergonic anabolicanabolic ATP couples catabolic (decomposition) reactions with anabolic (synthesis) reactions.Which of the following are found in ATP?adenine (a nitrogenous base), ribose, and three phosphates (serially bonded phosphate groups)