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thinking, knowing (tied to memory), remembering, communicating

problem solving

a problem is any situation in which a person has a goal that is not yet met


a rule of thumb/ general way of thinking of something, but is not always accurate

special case of insight

sudden realization of the way to solve a problem

insight problem

requires the solver to switch their perspective to solve the problem in a novel way

confirmation bias

take in information to seek to confirm what you already believe


an inability to adopt any different or new perspective on a problem. Mental set and functional fixedness (being only able to come up with an object for the purpose it was intended


is a set of instructions for solving a problem or completing a process


a person's capacity to learn

functional fixedness

People are often very limited in the ways they think about objects, concepts, and people. When something is thought of only in terms of its functionality, then the person is demonstrating functional fixedness. This type of thinking is narrow and limited, often inhibiting the problem solving process.


the extent to which differences in a trait can be attributed to our genetic makeup is important in trying to understand human behavior. Also, keep in mind that genes and environment do not occur in isolation, but interact with each other. As a result, you are who you are, and you act and think the ways you do because of the combination of your heritability and your environment.

Insight Learning

type of learning or problem solving that happens all-of-a-sudden through understanding the relationships various parts of a problem rather than through trial and error.

mental set

a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past


refers to the extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in its measures.

standard deviation

is a measure of variation (or variability) that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean


Consistency and objectivity of how tests are administered and scored. Enables meaningful comparisons for a group


All tests are designed to measure something; hopefully something specific. If the test does indeed measure what it is intended to measure, then we can say that the test is valid

twin study

help disentangle the relative importance of environmental and genetic influences on individual traits and behaviors. Twin research is considered a key tool in behavioral genetics and related fields


an inclination to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of (possibly equally valid) alternatives

how do we solve problems?

through algorithms and heuristics. Algorithms: Benefits- system that guarantees a solution and accurate Drawbacks- time-consuming and resource extensive .
Heuristics: "rule of thumb" - general way of thinking about things, sometimes it works, sometimes it doesn't . Benefits- quick and pretty much accurate Drawbacks- not guaranteed the correct solution.

examples of heuristics

rule of thumb, what to tip on a bill, trial and error

how are mental set and functional fixedness related?

they are both examples of fixation. Mental set- mental "tool box" that you use for certain types of problems. It proposes how we think and refers to our tendency to approach a problem with a mindset of what has worked for us previously. Functional fixedness- only thinks of an item for the purpose it was intended (ex. The brick). Think of only the familiar functions for objects without imagining alternative uses.

what does "g" stand for?

general intelligence. It is a statistic used to model the mental ability underlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. Spearman coined the term general intelligence after observing how school children's grades in unrelated courses were positively correlated. Spearman reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed "general intelligence".

who designed the first intelligence test?

Alfred Binet and is known as the Binet - Simon scale. The test focuses on things such as attention, memory and problem-solving skills. The purpose of the test was to identify the French children who would need special assistance in classes after the French Government signed a law stating that all children must attend school. Binet suggested the concept of a mental age, or a measure of intelligence based on the average abilities of children of a certain age group.

different theories of multiple intelligence

• Catell's fluid and crystallized intelligences : Fluid- general problem solving Catell's fluid and crystallized intelligences : Fluid- general problem solving ability, high= more efficient , decreases with age. Crystallized- knowledge based intelligence. Facts, etc. grows with experience.
• Stembeig's triarchic theory : Creative- new ideas. Practical- common sense, "street smarts." Analytic- traditional IQ, school, math, verbal.
• Gardner's Multiple Intelligences: everyone is intelligent in some way. Emotional intelligence. Spacial intelligence (artist). Verbal intelligence (poets). Interpersonal Intelligence (other people). Musical intelligence (composers). Logical- mathematical (scientists). Bodily-kinesthetic (dancers).
• Spearmans "g"- a basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas.
• Thurstone's primary mental abilities- our intelligence may be broken down into seven factors: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory.

three things proposed as intelligence

what, why, how

how is an IQ score derived?

from one of several different standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. When modern IQ tests are constructed, the mean (average) score within an age group is set to 100 and the standard deviation to 15/ (mental age/chronological age)x 100

different ways to measure intelligence

Standardized tests: WISC, WAIS, Woodcock-Johnson
Biology: it may be at the genetic level? Set limit?

abilities that may get left out of traditional intelligence testing

- Motivation
- Different intelligences
- Creativity
- Low IQs, but specialized
- Capacity

bell curve

normal curve

an IQ score two deviations above the mean

states that the person is in the top 2% of that sample with a score of 130.

predictive validity and range restrictions effect on it

Be able to predict the criterion of future performance. The narrower the range, the lower the predictive power.

flynn effect

substantial increase in IQ scores. The tests are standardized, the average of the test results is set to 100, and their standard deviation is set to 15 points.

intellectual disability and how it is problematic

IQ < 70 = mental retardation ( two standard deviations from the mean)

some kids just miss the cut so they are put into classes that are too hard for them

standard definition of giftedness and how it is problematic

IQ > 130 = gifted (genius) ( two standard deviations above the mean)

some kids just miss the cut and are put into classes that are too easy for them

common heritibility estimate of IQ

40-80 %

however these are dependent on the variability of environment, variability does NOT equal genetic differences, and the more variable the environment is the lower the H.E.

heritibility estimate

Explains the extent in which these differences are "genetic

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