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119 terms

Respiratory System

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alveol/o
alveolus ( air sac)
bronch/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o
carbon dioxide
carb/o
carbon dioxide
laryng/o
larynx ( voice box)
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o
nose
rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
palat/o
palate
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o
pleura
pneum/o
air or lung
pneumon/o
air or lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o
chest
pector/o
chest
steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsil (almond)
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o
uvula
-pnea
breathing
nose
structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract and that houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate
partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion-also called palatine tonsils
adeniod
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose- also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
right and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity ( parietal pleura)
pleural cavity
potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm
muscular partition that separated the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lung) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes
thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
cilia
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles/ rales
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli- occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
wheezes/ rhonchi
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway- occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
stridor
a high-pitched crowing sound that is a sign of obstuction in the upper airway
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
dysphonia
hoarseness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood origination in the lungs
hypercapnia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
asthma
panting, obsturctive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
bronchiectasis
abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)/ croup
inflammation of the upper airways with swellin that creates a funnel-shapped elongation of tissue causing a distinct " seal bark" cough
laryngospasm
spasm of laryngeal muscles causing constriction
nasal polyposis
presence of numerous polyps in the nose
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
pleuritis/pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism- a common opportunictic infection sen in those with postive human immunodeficiency
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothorax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dust
pulmonary embolism (PE)
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsillitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infectino (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH
a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood