the theory that people try to explain behavior through either the situation or the persons disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
when observers underestimate the impact of a situation, and overestimate the persons disposition
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Central Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. Occurs mostly when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issue.
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Responses to incidental cues, such as the speakers attractiveness. AKA when external factors (besides the actual logic of an argument) influence behavior.
The tendency for people to agree to a small request and then later to a larger one. Milgram experiment.
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. SPE, Abu Ghraib.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. Does not apply to difficult tasks.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling towards a common goal then when individually accountable. Tug of war example. Don't want white dudes from US or UK.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint, occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. War, food fights, baseball games.
the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. Amplified through isolation.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Allowing dissent or differing opinions prevents this.
the enduring behaviors, ides, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
the tendency to recall faces of your own race more clearly than faces of other races. Also called cross-race bias, and own-race bias.
the tendency to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
the principle that frustration (the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking of them
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present in the beginning of a love relationship
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if others are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behaviors are an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize our benefits and minimize costs.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation