53 terms

Social Psychology (chapter 14)

Social Psychology
the study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one and other
Attribution Theory
the theory that people try to explain behavior through either the situation or the persons disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
when observers underestimate the impact of a situation, and overestimate the persons disposition
Are Westerners more likely to blame disposition or situation?
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Central Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. Occurs mostly when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issue.
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Responses to incidental cues, such as the speakers attractiveness. AKA when external factors (besides the actual logic of an argument) influence behavior.
Foot-in-door phenomenon
The tendency for people to agree to a small request and then later to a larger one. Milgram experiment.
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. SPE, Abu Ghraib.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
chameleon effect
the effect of people mimicking others
adjusting behavior to coincide with group standard. Asch line experiment.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval
Informative Social Influence
influence based on accepting other peoples view of reality
When a situation is serious, conformity is more or less likely to rise
Between obedience and kindness, most people choose
When supported by beliefs, role models, and social interactions, people will or will not rebel
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. Does not apply to difficult tasks.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling towards a common goal then when individually accountable. Tug of war example. Don't want white dudes from US or UK.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint, occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. War, food fights, baseball games.
group polarization
the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. Amplified through isolation.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Allowing dissent or differing opinions prevents this.
the enduring behaviors, ides, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Four things that have changed in culture for the worse:
Delinquency, Divorce, and Depression
understood rules for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
personal space
the buffer zone we maintain around our bodies
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (but sometimes accurate) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor your own group
scapegoat theory
prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
the tendency to recall faces of your own race more clearly than faces of other races. Also called cross-race bias, and own-race bias.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency to believe the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration (the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal) creates anger, which can generate aggression
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking of them
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present in the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if others are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behaviors are an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize our benefits and minimize costs.
reciprocity norm
the expectation that people will help those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
self-fulfilling prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction