18 terms

Chapter 5: Digital Safety and Security

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Terms in this set (...)

Back Door
A program that allows an unauthorized user to bypass the security controls on a computer and access programs, files, and the network. Computers with a back door that are controlled by others are called zombies.
Backup
The process of copying the files on a computer to a safe location so that they may be available if something goes wrong. Full backups copy all the files that are currently on the drive, incremental backups copy that chanced since the last full backup, differential backups log all the changes since the last full backup, and selective backups only copy those files the user indicates.
Bot
A program that performs repetitive tasks on a network.
Certificate Authority
A business that provides and verifies digital certificates online.
Cracker
Someone who accesses a computer or computer network illegally with the intent of stealing information, destroying data, or performing a malicious action.
Cyberterrorist
Someone who uses the Internet or network to damage data or computers for political or religious reasons.
Decryption
The process of taking a chunk of encrypted data and converting it back to a form that can be read and used.
Digital Certificate
A digital certificate makes uses of asymmetric encryption to provide a means of guaranteeing that a user or website is legitimate. If the certificate comes from a source you don't already know, its best to verify through a certificate authority.
Encryption
The process by which a chunk of data is mathematically modified to make it unreadable to anyone that does not possess the proper key and/or technique for accessing it.
Firewall
A computer program that protects a user by blocking unauthorized transmissions and informing the user about any attempted intrusions. Programs communicate through ports and a firewall does not allow access to ports that are not explicitly allowed by the user.
Hacker
A computer enthusiast who accesses a computer or network illegally. Often this is doen by hackers for the challenge of getting past the security and the hacker does not do any malicious damage when inside.
Malware
Malicious software that consists of programs that act without a user's knowledge and deliberately after the operations of computers and mobile devices. Examples include viruses, rootkits, worms, and Trojan horses.
Phishing
A scam in which the perpetrator sends an official email or communication that attempts to obtain a user's passwords or personal and financial information.
Rootkit
Malware that hides in a computer or mobile device and allows a remote user to take full control of the computer or device.
Script Kiddie
Someone who lacks the technological skill to break into a computer or computer network, but who does so through the use of premade programs and hacker tools.
Spoofing
The act of making an internet transmission appear as if it was legitimately sent by someone else.
Trojan Horse
Malware that disguises itself as a desirable program such as a game, but when it is installed it may perform malicious tasks behind the scenes such as implanting a rootkit.
Worm
Malware that works by copying itself repeatedly in memory or storage. While it does not directly damage files, the copies may eventually consume all available resources and cause the computer, device, or network to cease functioning.