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AWL March 4th
Terms in this set (61)
to study (something) closely and carefully : to learn the nature and relationship of the parts of (something) by a close and careful examination.
• analyze a problem
• The data was recorded and analyzed by computer.
• We took the sample to be chemically analyzed by a lab.
to move or become near or nearer to something or someone.
• The cat approached the baby cautiously.
• We are approaching [=nearing] our destination.
to make a judgment about (something).
• The school will assess [=evaluate] the students' progress each year.
• After the hurricane, officials assessed the town's need for aid.
• assess a problem
a part or section within a larger place : region.
• Settlers came to this area from the east.
• The group visited the area during a hunting trip.
• in the area surrounding the lake
to think that something is true or probably true without knowing that it is true .
• I assumed he was coming, so I was surprised when he didn't show up.
• "Is he coming?" "So I assume." = "I assume so."
• I think we can safely assume that he's coming. = I think it's safe to assume that he's coming.
the power to give orders or make decisions : the power or right to direct or control someone or something.
• Only department managers have the authority [=right, power] to change the schedule.
• Does he have the authority to do this? = (US) Does he have authority to do this?
• This office has authority over personnel matters. .
: easy or possible to get or use.
• The family kept emergency supplies available.
• The dress is also available in larger sizes.
• The articles are available at any drugstore.
a good or helpful result or effect .
• the benefits of fresh air and sunshine
• A benefit of museum membership is that purchases are discounted.
• There are many financial benefits to owning your own home.
:an idea of what something is or how it works.
• She is familiar with basic concepts of psychology.
• not a new concept
• a concept borrowed from computer programming
• She seems to be a little unclear on the concept of good manners. [=she seems not to understand what good manners are]
a : always acting or behaving in the same way
b : of the same quality.
• He is a consistent supporter of the museum.
• We need to be more consistent in handling this problem.
• Data from recent experiments show consistent results. [=results that do not change
• His pitching has always been very consistent. [=reliable]
• Customers expect that the quality of service they receive will be consistent.
a : the system of beliefs and laws by which a country, state, or organization is governed
b : a document that describes this system.
• The state's constitution has strict rules about what tax money can be used for.
• The right to free speech is guaranteed by the (U.S.) Constitution.
the words that are used with a certain word or phrase and that help to explain its meaning.
• To really know a word, you must be able to use it in context. [=in a sentence with other words] When taken out of context, his comments sound cruel, but he was really only joking.
• The actor claimed he'd been quoted out of context.
a legal agreement between people, companies, etc.
• The contract requires him to finish work by the end of the year.
to make or produce (something) : to cause (something new) to exist.
• Several new government programs were created while she was governor.
• The President has announced a plan to create new jobs.
facts or information used usually to calculate, analyze, or plan something.
• She spent hours reviewing the data from the experiment.
• They made their decisions based on the survey data.
1 [count]1 [count]
a : an explanation of the meaning of a word, phrase, etc. : a statement that defines a word, phrase, etc.
• dictionary definitions
b : a statement that describes what something is
• What is the legal definition of a corporation?
• a definition of happiness
• dictionary definitions
• What is the legal definition of a corporation?
• a definition of happiness
to take or get (something) from (something else)— often used as (be) derived.
• The river derives its name from a Native American tribe.
• She derived [=received, took] great satisfaction from their friendship.
• Many English words are derived from French.
a. the act of giving or delivering something to people.
• The group collects food and clothing for distribution to needy families.
• The distribution of paychecks will happen every other Friday.
• The university does not permit distribution of leaflets on campus.
• She was responsible for product distribution.
• The company handles the distribution of goods to stores nationwide.
a : relating to an economy : relating to the process or system by which goods and services are produced, sold, and bought
b : relating to the science of economics.
• a program to prevent inflation and economic collapse
• the country's economic growth
• the President's chief economic adviser
• controversial economic theories
:The conditions that surround someone or something : the conditions and influences that affect the growth, health, progress, etc., of someone or something.
• He grew up in a loving environment.
• an informal office environment
• We're trying to create a better business/learning environment.
a: to cause (someone or something) to be widely known and accepted.
b : to put (someone or something) in a position, role, etc., that will last for a long time.
• establish a claim
• The film established her as a star.
• She established a reputation as a hard worker.
a guess that you make based on the information you have about the size, amount, etc., of something.
• According to government estimates, current oil reserves are 10 percent lower than they were a year ago.
• One conservative estimate is that he stole five million dollars.
• At a (very) rough estimate, the job will take three months.
to offer or show evidence of (something) : to show or indicate (something).
• certificates evidencing stock ownership.
to send a product to be sold in another country.
• countries that export oil to the U.S.
something that helps produce or influence a result : one of the things that cause something to happen.
• There were several factors contributing to their recent decline.
• Poor planning was a major factor in the company's failure.
• Cost was the decisive/deciding/determining factor in their decision. [=the most important reason for their decision]
relating to money.
• The company is headed for financial disaster.
• a family struggling with financial problems
• I would like some financial advice before I buy this house.
• You can get a loan at a financial institution. [=a company that deals with money; a bank]
the special purpose or activity for which a thing exists or is used.
• The function of the heart is to pump blood through the body.
• He believes that the true function of art is to tell the truth.
• What functions do these programs fulfill/perform/serve?
• infants learning to control their bodily functions.
[noncount] : the way in which money is used and handled .
• She's taking a course on personal finance.
a : a plan or method for doing, making, or achieving something
b : a list of the ingredients used for making something (such as a medicine or a drink)
• His investment strategy is based on a simple formula.
• This has proven to be a winning formula.
to know and say who someone is or what something is.
• She identified the dog as her lost pet.
• He was able to correctly identify the mushroom.
• The witness positively identified the suspect in the crime.
money that is earned from work, investments, business, etc.
• Any income from investments must be reported.
• taxable income
• Farming is his main source of income.
:to show (something)
:to show that (something) exists or is true.
• There is nothing to indicate that the two events are connected.
• Our records indicate a depth of 3,000 feet here.
• The map indicates where the treasure is buried.
always used before a noun : of, relating to, or existing as just one member or part of a larger group.
• The doctor carefully evaluates the individual needs of her patients.
• What are the individual traits/characteristics of the breed?
• Students will receive as much individual attention as possible.
: to explain the meaning of (something).
• interpret a dream
• We need someone to interpret these results for us.
• How should we interpret the law/rules/decision?
a: to have or include (someone or something) as a part of something
b: to cause (someone) to be included in some activity, situation, etc. : to cause (someone) to take part in something
c : to cause (someone) to be associated with someone or something.
• Does this involve me?
• I didn't intend to involve you in this mess.
• She remained involved with the organization for many years.
something that people are talking about, thinking about, etc. : an important subject or topic.
• She is concerned with a variety of social/moral/economic issues.
• Water purity is a public health issue.
• The President's speech addressed a number of important issues.
a : physical or mental effort : work
b [noncount] : work for which someone is paid.
• A day's labor should get the job done.
• Getting the job done will require many hours of difficult labor.
• menial/manual labor
• He rested from his labors
a : of or relating to the law
b : based on the law
• She has a lot of legal problems.
• legal books
• a legal adviser/representative
• a country's legal system [=the way that laws are made and controlled in a country]
a law or set of laws made by a government.
• They passed new state legislation this week.
• Two new pieces of legislation are being considered.
• She introduced/proposed legislation for protecting the environment.
a : very important
b always used before a noun : large in number, amount, or extent.
• a major poet/artist
• He's one of the major figures in 19th-century U.S. history.
• Researchers have announced a major advance/breakthrough in the treatment of cancer
count] : a way of doing something .
• He claims to have developed a new method for growing tomatoes.
• Their teaching method tries to adapt lessons to each student.
• We need to adopt more modern methods of doing things.
somewhat formal : to happen.
• The event is scheduled to occur at noon tomorrow.
• No one was ready for what was about to occur.
• There's a chance that a similar event will occur in the future.
• The disease tends to occur in children under the age of five.
one part in a hundred : an amount that is equal to one one-hundredth of something.
• The value has increased half a percent.
• several percent
a length of time during which a series of events or an action takes place or is completed.
• We have had two power failures in a five-month period.
• The period between Christmas and New Year's Eve is a very busy one for us.
an officially accepted set of rules or ideas about what should.
• Ask the cashier what the store's return policy is.
• They voted to adopt/pursue more liberal trade policies.
a moral rule or belief that helps you know what is right and wrong and that influences your actions.
• He has good principles.
• It's against my principles to cheat. [=I believe that cheating is wrong]
a series of actions that are done in a certain way or order : an established or accepted way of doing something.
• Installing a car battery is a simple procedure.
• the procedure for treating a burn.
1:a series of actions that produce something or that lead to a particular result1
2: to change (something) from one form into another by preparing, handling, or treating it in a special way.
• How does the election process work?
• Learning a foreign language can be a long/slow/difficult process.
• Food is often processed before it is packaged and sold.
• He brought the film to be processed. [=developed]
• The sewage plant processes waste.
to need (something).
• We require your assistance.
• He is very sick and requires constant care. [=he has to be given constant care]
1:careful study that is done to find and report new knowledge about something
2:to study (something) carefully.
• cancer/AIDS/drug research
• medical/scientific/scholarly research
• She conducts research into/on the causes of Alzheimer's disease.
• She is researching [=investigating] the relationship between stress and heart disease.
something that is said or written as a reply to something.
• He got a response to his letter.
• I am writing in response to your letter of July 17.
1 : the character played by an actor.
• He plays the role of the villain.
• She was given the starring/lead/leading role.
• I had a minor/major role in the play.
1 a : one of the parts that form something
b : a particular area that is part of a larger place
c: a part of a newspaper, play, book, etc.
d : a part of a group of people.
• the upper section of the bridge
• the frozen food section in the supermarket
• Can I see the sports section (of the newspaper)?
• ads that target one section of the population.
1: an area of an economy : a part of an economy that includes certain kinds of jobs.
• the industrial/agricultural/service sector
: large enough to be noticed or have an effect.
• A significant number of customers complained about the service.
• He won a significant amount of money.
• There is a significant difference in prices between the two stores.
1: almost the same as someone or something else.
• Our cats are similar in size/color/appearance.
• You two look very/quite similar to each other.
• They had similar experiences growing up, even though they came from vastly different backgrounds.
someone or something that provides what is wanted or needed.
• The college had its own power source.
• a water source = a source of water
• She has been a great source of strength to me.
• His job is the family's main source of income.
1 :always used before a noun : special or particular.
• Is there anything specific you want for dinner?
• There is a specific word for this kind of feeling.
• a bird species that requires a specific environment
• We were each given a specific topic to talk about
a : the way that something is built, arranged, or organized
b : the way that a group of people are organized
• A: The film had a simple narrative structure.
• the structure of a plant
• B:a solid family structure
• the social structure of a college campus.
1 : an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events.
• a widely accepted scientific theory
• Einstein's theory of relativity
• theories on/about evolution
1:able or likely to change or be changed : not always the same.
• The winds were light and variable.
• a variable climate
• The loan has a variable interest rate.