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36 terms

Midterm Review Baker EES

STUDY
PLAY
Observation
A description of something you are studying, using only facts that you can see, touch, hear or smell. An observation is not an opinion.
Inference
using your observations to make a guess about an object or an outcome.
Hypothesis
Testable explanation or prediction, for natural phenomena describing a cause and effect relationship; written in the "if...then..." format
Independent Variable
The variable that you CHANGE (the variable that the experimenter can manipulate)
Dependent Variable
The variable which you OBSERVE and measure; this changes depending on the independent variable
Experimental Group
In an experiment, the subject(s) being tested (the subjects that are receiving treatment)
Control Group
In an experiment, the subject(s) who do not receive experimental treatment and are used as a comparison. The "norm"
Topographic Map
A two-dimensional way of showing a three-dimensional image of changes in elevation
Contour Lines
Lines drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation
Prime Meridian
the line of longitude running at 0o vertically
Equator
the line of latitude running 0o horizontally
Sedimentary Rock
formed from the lithification (compaction and cementation) of sediments; typically found at the bottoms of oceans and streams
Metamorphic Rock
formed from high heat and pressure; typically found deep within Earth's crust
Igneous Rock
formed from the cooling of lava (extrusive) or magma (intrusive); typically found near volcanoes
Frost Wedging
a type of mechanical weathering where rocks are broken into small sediments by the continuous refreezing of water
Chemical Weathering
the breakdown of rock that results in a NEW chemical composition. This occurs most often in hot and wet climates
Mechanical Weathering
the breakdown of rock into smaller sediments, without changing the rock's mineral composition
Erosion
the transportation of sediments; water is the primary agent of erosion on Earth (responsible for the Grand Canyon)
Lithosphere
the rigid outer layer of Earth, made up of the crust and uppermost mantle (these make up the tectonic plates!)
Asthenosphere
the top part of the mantle, directly below the lithosphere, where convection occurs
Convergent Boundary
when 2 plates come together and collide, forming mountains, volcanoes, and ocean trenches. Old lithosphere/crust is destroyed
Divergent Boundary
when 2 plates divide and split apart, forming rift valleys or mid-ocean ridges. New lithosphere/crust is created
Transform Fault Boundary
where 2 plates slide/grind past each other without creating or destroying lithosphere; the most common location of earthquakes
Earthquake
triggered by the build-up and release of elastic energy along a fault
Focus
the point within earth on a fault where an earthquake begins
P Waves
the fastest wave released in an earthquake that arrives first at a seismic station
S Wave
the second wave to arrive at a seismic station from an earthquake
Surface Waves
the slowest, but most destructive type of wave from an earthquake. These waves do not travel through the earth, but along the earth's surface instead.
Aftershocks
the smaller earthquakes that occur because of continued plate movement after the main shock
Tsunamis
formed during an earthquake when underwater earthquakes set off an underwater wave that builds over time
Composite Cone Volcanoes
the largest type of volcano often found around the ring of fire
Sustainability
meeting our current needs without preventing or limiting future generations from being able to meet their needs (providing for us today, while saving for tomorrow!)
Solar Energy
an alternative and renewable energy source that provides clean energy, however it is expensive to install and is not as effective on cloudy days
Renewable Resource
resources that can be replenished (replaced) in a short amount of time after they are used
Non-renewable Resource
resources that we have in a limited supply; once we use them, we cannot get anymore because they take millions of years to replace (ex: fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas)
Reclamation
the process of restoring the land after mining and fixing any of the damages that were done in the mining process