Bio Chapter 11
DNA: The Molecule of Heredity From DNA to Protein Genetic Changes
Terms in this set (44)
subunit of a nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
A carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen.
The shape of DNA...two strands twisted together
The process by which DNA in the chromosomes is replicated.
Nitrogenous bases in DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
Nitrogenous bases in RNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
Adenine and Guanine
Thymine, Cytosine, and Uracil
True or False
In DNA, the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of cytosine.
True or False
DNA determines the structure of proteins.
Within the structure of DNA is the information for life—the complete instructions for manufacturing all the proteins for an organism.
Why are enzymes important?
Enzymes are critical for an organism's function because they control the chemical reactions needed for life.
True or False
DNA is a monomer.
DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits called nucleotides.
What is the sugar in DNA?
What is the sugar in RNA?
Why does DNA have the structure that it does?
The phosphate groups and deoxyribose molecules form the backbone of the chain, and the nitrogenous bases stick out like the teeth of a zipper.
Why is it important to have nucleotided in a particular order, or sequence?
The sequence of nucleotides forms the unique genetic information of an organism. Scientists use nucleotide sequences to determine evolutionary relationships among organisms, to determine whether two people are related, and to identify bodies of crime victims.
True or False
The closer the relationship is between two organisms, the more similar their DNA nucleotide sequences will be.
the process by which DNA in the chromosomes is copied
When does DNA replication occur?
during interphase before mitosis or meiosis
Why is DNA replication important?
Without DNA replication, new cells would have only half the DNA of their parents.
True or False
When DNA gets copied, it's okay if the copies are not exactly the same.
It is important that the new copies are exactly like the original molecules.
What are the steps of DNA replication?
1. The original strand of DNA is unzipped by an enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases.
2. Free nucleotides start to attach to their base pair by forming new hydrogen bonds. (A goes to T, T with A, C with G, and G with C)
3. Another type of enzyme connects these nucleotides into a chain.
4. This process continues until the entire strand of DNA has been unzipped and copied.
What is the end result of DNA replication
When a DNA molecule replicates, two molecules are formed. Each molecule has one original strand and one new strand.
How do newly synthesized molecules of DNA compare to the original strands of DNA?
New molecules of DNA have one new strand, which is a compliment to the old strand, and one old strand. They have the same sequence.
Why does DNA have to be unzipped before it gets copied?
DNA must be unzipped before replication, because each half of the DNA is used as a template for the enzyme to build a new half of DNA.
How does DNA hold information?
DNA contains information by maintaining a certain sequence (or group of sequences) of nucleotides.
What importance did the experiment performed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase have in determining what genetic material was?
Many scientists believed protein was the genetic material. However, an experiment using radioactively labeled viruses allowed Hershey and Chase to provide convincing evidence that DNA is the genetic material.
Which of the following is NOT a component of DNA?
A. phosphate groups
C. simple sugars
D. nitrogenous bases
How can the "information" in DNA be used?
The sequence of nucleotides that makes up the DNA holds codes for putting amino acids in order, or making proteins.
What is the 3D shape of RNA?
RNA is a single stranded helix
a large molecule formed from smaller subunits that are bonded together
stands for messenger RNA
An RNA molecule that brings the protein instructions from the DNA to the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome.
stands for ribosomal RNA
An RNA molecule that binds to the mRNA and uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order.
stands for transfer RNA
An RNA molecule that brings the amino acids to the ribosomes so that they can be made into proteins
The process by which enzymes make an RNA copy of a part of a DNA strand.
Why is the genetic code important?
The genetic code contains the instructions for making all of the necessary amino acids that are used to make proteins. Proteins are needed for every aspect of life.
What is the main difference between transcription and DNA replication?
The main differentce between transcription and DNA replication is that transcription results in the formation of one single-stranded RNA molecule rather than a double-stranded DNA molecule.
What are the steps in the process of transcription?
Step 1: Enzymes unzip the molecule of DNA in the area that will be transcribed.
Step 2: Free RNA nucleotides form base pairs with their complementary nucleotides on the DNA strand. The mRNA strand is complete when the RNA nucleotides bond together.
The mRNA strand breaks away, and the DNA strands rejoin. The mRNA strand leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein.
What are the steps in translation?
1. A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand. Molecules of tRNA (each carrying a specific amino acid) go towards the ribosome.
2. The codon AUG (Methionine), signals the start of protein synthesis. The tRNA molecule carying methionine attaches to the ribosome and mRNA strand.
3. A new tRNA molecule (carring another amino acid) attaches to the ribosome and mRNA strand next to the previos tRNA molecule. The amino acids on the tRNA molecules join by peptide bonds.
3. After the peptide bond is formed, the ribosome slides along the mRNA molecule to the next codon. The tRNA molecule no longer carrying an amino acid is released. A new tRNA molecule carrying an amino acid can attach to the ribosome and mRNA strand.
4. A chain of amino acids is formed until a stop codon is reached on the mRNA strand.
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