64 terms

A.P Environmental Science Exam Prep

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crust
the outermost and thinnest zone of the earth
divergent plate boundary
boundaries between the tectonic plates as they separate, collide or slide past on another. they cause mountains to form, earthquakes shake parts of the crust and volcanoes to errupt
tectonic plate
huge rigid plates, that together was called the lithosphere, that move extremely slowly atop the asthenosphere
volcanic arc
chains of volcanoes
Rachel Carson
carried out research in oceanography and marine biology and wrote articles about the oceans and topics related to the environment. Wrote "Silent Spring"'
love canal
chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth defects & cancer
pesticides
chemicals used to kill or control populations of organisms that we consider undesirable
includes: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides
ozone
a colorless and highly reactive gas, which is a major ingredient of photo chemical smog
can cause: coughing and breathing problems, aggravating lung and heart diseases, reduced resistance to to colds and pneumonia and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat.
E.P.A.
(Environmental Protection Agency) assesses the health risks of the active ingredients in pesticide products already in use.
Hot-spot volcanism
when internal pressure is high enough to cause lava, ash, and gases to be ejected into the atmosphere or to flow over land, causing damage. Some erupted volcanoes have become inactive and formed islands or chains of islands
Example: Hawaii
abiotic
nonliving components in a biosphere and its ecosystem
Examples: water, air, nutrients, rocks, heat and solar energy
biotic
living components in a biosphere and its ecosystem
Examples: plants, animals, microbes and all other organisms
manure
solid waste or urine from farm animals that improves topsoil structure, adds organic nitrogen and stimulates the growth of beneficial soil bacteria and fungi
ground cover
plants that grow over an area of ground that provides protection from erosion and drought
watershed
land area the delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream
mitigation
Avoiding the impact altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of an action
sediment
dead plant and animal remains and tiny particles of weathered and eroded rocks
transported by: water, wind or gravity and taking to downwind, downhill, or underwater sites
oligotrophic
lakes that have a small supply of plant nutrients, often deep with steep banks
timber
trees grown for the sole purpose of lumber
hurricanes and typhoon
storms that have violent hard winds
overgrazing
when too many animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses and their roots and exceeding the carrying capacity of a range land area
reduces grass cover, exposes the soil to erosion by water and wind and compacts the soil
habitats
place or types of places where an organism or population of organisms lives
compost
type of organic fertilizer that is produced when microorganisms in topsoil break down organic matter such as leaves, crop residues, food wastes, paper and wood in the presence of oxygen
desertification
threatens the world's food supply from livestock and crops, which occurs when the productive potential of topsoil falls by 10% or more because of a combination of prolonged drought and human activity
ex: overgrazing and deforestation that reduces or degrades topsoil
primary productivity
The rate at which an ecosystems producers convert solar energy into chemical energy in the form of biomass found in their tissues, or the rate at which producers use photosynthesis to produce and store chemical energy minus the rate at which they use some of this stored chemical energy through aerobic respiration
ammonification
Decomposers convert organic waste into ammonia
compaction
closely or firmly packed or joined together
subsidence
A sink in the land
urbanized
the creation and growth of urban and suburban areas
microclimate
Climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
species diversity
the number and variety of species in a communities ecosystem
delta
provide natural protection against flood and wave damage from coastal storms, hurricanes, typhoons, and tsumnamis
smelting
Heating ones to release metals
sustainable yield
the highest rate at which we can use a renewable resource indefinitely without reducing its available supply
trawl nets
used to catch fishes and scallops that live on or near the ocean floor
predators
members of a species that feed directly on all or part of a living organism (prey) as part of the food web
salinity
the amounts of various inorganic minerals of salts dissolved in a given volume of water
demographic transition
hypothesis of population change that states as countries become industrialized and economically developed, first their death rates decline and then their birth rates decline
edge effect
edge of a forest or wooded area where deer live for security
exclusion
not leaving enough resources for the survival of others
normal distribution
a function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph.
ID the green house gases
allow mostly visible light and some infrared radiation and UV radiation from the sun to pass through to atmosphere
ex. water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
equilibrium
...
positive feedback loop
causes a system to change further in the same direction
rain forest
forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between 250 and 450 centimetres
Ex. tropical and temperate
population momentum
when a population of a country attain population replacement level. The trend of the population will still
fertility
the reproductive capacity
emigration
people move from country to country
oxidation
it is a process in which a chemical substance change because of the addition of oxygen
cellular respiration
the process of oxidizing food molecules. The energy is trapped in the form of ATP for use of the activities of the cell
Ex. glucose -> carbon dioxide and water
anaerobic
type of respiration that involves breaking down organic compounds in the absence of oxygen
ex. glucose
eradiction
the act of tearing out by the roots, or of eliminating as if tearing out by the roots
broad spectrum
A term indicating a broad range of activity of an antibiotic against a wide variety of microorganisms.
monoculture
the process of cultivating a single crop in a given area
second-generation pesticides
pesticides that were produced in labs that became the world's most used pesticide.
Ex. DDT
groundwater
one of our most important sources of freshwater and a key component of the earth's natural capital. Ground water is in the spaces of: soil, gravel, and rock
water table
the top of the ground water zone
intrusion
forcing something upon something else without consent
crude birth rate
the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year,
assess
An evaluation technique for technology that requires analyzing benefits and risks, understanding the trade-offs, and then determining the best action to take in order to ensure that the desired positive outcomes outweigh the negative consequences.
r- stategists & K stragists
...
wetland
land that consists of mainly marshes or swamps; saturated land
Ex. Marshes, bogs, swamps
aquatic
living in water
Ex. seaweed, fish
calories and kcal/m
...
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