Terms in this set (29)
Abraham/Ishmael/Isaac=beginning of monotheism
Philistine people occupy region (become "Palestinian")—had been there before but now a separate ethnic identity is created
Jerusalem becomes Jewish capital; made so by King David (first "Divine" King)
Romans crush Jewish uprising, destroys 2nd Temple (all that remains is the Western ["Wailing"] Wall, today holiest place on Earth for Jews), and forces the Jews out ("Ashkenazi" to Europe, "Sephardic" to Africa/Spain)=THE Diaspora (3rd)
Roman Empire converts to Christianity (from worshipping Roman gods); makes Byzantium into "Constantinople," which becomes the capital of Byzantium (East Roman Empire)
Arabs take over Jerusalem, Omar (Umar, 2nd Rightly Guided Caliph) rules over, allows Jews back (691 Caliph Abd el-Malik builds the Dome of the Rock & Al Aqsa Mosque [3rd Holiest site for Muslims)
Saladin conquers area for Muslims, allows all religions to practice freely. From now until after World War Two, the area is ruled by/populated by a majority of Muslims
Ottoman Turkish rule incl WW1 (1914-1923)
Hussein-McMahon Letters incite Arab Revolt by promising land to Muslims *
Balfour Declaration- intl Jewry donate money to Allies in exch for Zion control *
Treaty of Lausanne negotiated by Ataturk, repudiates Treaty of Sevres. Turkey and 6 mandates (Fr- Syria, Lebanon; Br- Iraq, Kuwait, TransJordan, Palestine) are created *
Turkey officially created (secular, new language, 1st time Koran not in Arabic) + Sunni Caliphate abolished
Jews move back to Palestine, Palestinians angry=193- 2nd Arab Revolt= Civil War
World War Two (Civil War is halted; Holocaust=6 million Jews killed)
A boat called "Exodus" filled with Holocaust survivors is refused ability to land in Palestine; sets off attacks on British rule of mandate and ignites Civil War Arabs vs Israelis*
*•1948, May 14
"Israel" is declared an independent Jewish state
1948 May 15
1st Arab Israeli War ("War of Independence" vs "The Catastrophe"); 6 nations attack (Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq)
Israel gains territory (now 70%) & remains a state="wins."
-No peace treaty, only a "truce" (SA, Leb, Syria, and Iraq tech still "at war" & don't recognize Israel's "right to exist") -Jordan takes over West Bank & East Jerusalem (incl the Western Wall); Syria=Golan Heights; Egypt=Gaza Strip
-beginning of 1st Palestinian "diaspora" to those countries that surround Israel-UN Resolution 194- "Right of Return" (its like Pal "Exodus") established for Palestinians + free access Holy places in exchange for peace=not implemented as no "peace"
PLO formed in Jordan (biggest group within it=Fatah led by Yasser Arafat)
3rd Arab Israeli War ("6 Day War" vs "June War"); *
-Israel defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria in 6 Days & "occupies" Gaza, Sinai, E. Jerusalem, West Bank & Golan Hts
-2nd Palestinian "diaspora"
-UN Resolution 242
4th Arab Israeli War ("Yom Kippur War" vs "October 6 War")- Egypt & Jordan attack Israel, Israel pushes Egypt back & takes west side of the Suez Canal. US intervened to negotiate- Israel withdrew from gains in Egypt to east of Suez & gains in Syria=leads to beginning of peace negotiations between Egypt and Israel
Camp David Peace Accord- Israel signs first peace from 1949 War with Egypt (Begin, Sadat and Carter—Sadat is assassinated by an Arab in 1981 due to making peace with Israel) *
Israel invades Lebanon to stop Hezbollah (party of Palestinian refugees)- Israeli troops remain until 2000. *
"Intifada" ("Uprising") of Palestinians in Gaza, then all of Occupied Territories against Israel; Hamas created (doesn't recognize Israel's right to exist).
PLO-Fatah/Arafat "recognize Israel's right to exist" in order to make progress on national status/refugee claims
Oslo Peace Accord- sets up an interim "Palestinian Authority" of West Bank/Gaza Strip in exchange for peace; capital at Ramallah; led by Arafat. Israel under PM Rabin controls borders, foreign policy, trade. Not fully implemented due to peace not fulfilled due to Hamas. Intifada is stopped.
Jordan and Israel sign peace agreement/end 1949 war (Rabin, Hussein, Clinton- Rabin assassinated by a Jew for making peace with Arabs)
Construction of Barrier/Fence/Wall around Gaza and West Bank begins in response to 2nd Intifada violence
Israel withdraws from Gaza and free elections occur—Jan 2006 Hamas is elected=violence w/Israel ensues