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a person's collective psychobiological response to challenging situations, such as those which are tiring, threatening, exciting, or new.


situation, event, or factor that causes a stress response. disrupt homeostasis


negative stress, depletes energy and results in impaired performance


positive stress, motivates and improves performance

general adaptation system

body's response to stress is in 3 stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

fight-or-flight response

acute stres response in which the autonomic nervous system(and neuroendocrine and voluntary nervous systems help) triggers a set of physiological changes that ready the body for action. (alarm stage)

transactional model of stress and coping

stress is a transactional (person-environment) phenomenon dependent of the meaning of the strssor to the perceiver. impacto f external strssor is first mediated by the person's appraisal of the strssor and then by the social and cultural resources at his/her disposal

type A behavior

excessive competitiveness, time-urgency, hostility


primary trait that puts people at risk for development of heart disease and other stress-related diseases

status syndrome

effectof social position on a person's quality of life and longevity beyond that accountedfor by education and income. Risk for stress-related health problems are mediated through the opportunity for or lack of individual autonomy and social participation

tend-and-befriend response

behavior patter of protecting and caring for offspring and seeking social support exhibited by humans when under threat

time management

prioritization, scheduling, andexecution of responsibilities to one's personal satisfaction

locus of control

psychological concept referringto a person's beliefs about the underlying causes of events in his or her life

internal control

outcomes are contingent on their actions, in control of their own life

external control

outcomes are determined by events or forces outside of personal control- fate, luck, etc

mental health

successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activities


influence of the mind on the way the body functions


state of being energized to perform a task


stable set of beliefs about one's qualities and attributes


how one feels, good or bad, about one's qualities and attributes

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by self-starvation, excessive thinness, and a distorted body image

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by binge eating and compensatory methods to rid the body of food

binge eating disorder

characterized by excessive overeating


excessive worry and concern

generalized anxiety disorder

constant and uncontrollable worry or concern about everything

posttraumatic stress disorder

occurs after experiencing a frightening event in which physical harm may have occurred

panic disorder

sudden, overwhelming attacks of fear


fear of specific object or event

obessive-compulsive disorder

repetition of an act over and over again as a response to unwanted thoughts


characterized by feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, guilt, sadness, and apprehension


characterized by an extremely elevated mood and subsequent hyperactive behaviors


form of depression that has long-term but less severe effects than major depression

bipolar disorder

swings between mania and depression

seasonal affective disorder

when symptoms of depression are experienced during a specific season of the year

paranoid personality disorder

characterized by excesisve distrust and suspicion of others


severe mental disorder thatinvolves distortedthoughts and perceptions, atypical communications, inappropriate emotion, and abnormal motor behavior. (paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual)

social readjustment rating scale

tool used to quantify the amount of stress a person is experiencing and the corresponding incresed risk forstress related illness, developed by Rahe and Holmes


daytime sleep attacks

transactional model of stress and coping

model in which stressful experiences are seen as person environment interactions


stage when body mobilizes energy, body is vulnerable, attempt to adapt to stressor and regain homeostasis


stage when stressor overcomes body's capacity to adapt, leads to illness, exhaustion, and even death.


stage when stress hormones are released


how someone acts


being very open and honest about declaring your rights


forceful behavior with intention to dominate

sensitivity group

group therapy technique that uses strategies to promote self-awareness and build trust in others

feminist psychotherapy

focuses on roles of society and discrimination in daily life

gestalt therapy

therapy that employs role-playing and confrontation

person-centered therapy

warm supportive environment in which people feel accepted and can reveal their true feelings

schizotypal disorder

socially isolated, exhibits bizarre behavior and beliefs about the world, and is suspicious of others


psychotherapy in which role playing stategies, including role reversal

psychodynamic therapy

freudian "insight" therapy that involves free association and dream analysis and can be focused on the unconscious and past experiences


psychotherapy that emphasized free will and using it to develop insight and self understanding


psychotherapy technique that involves monitoring body functions to provide information to the client

implosive therapy

psychotherapy technique encourages clients to imagin and deal with their worst fears in a safe environment with a therapist


conscious state of how we perceive ourselves


social isolation, suspicious of others, and bizarre behavior and beliefs about the world

humanistic therapy

type of psychotherapy that focuses on conscious thoughts and the present time as opposed to unconscious thoughts and past experiences

schizoid personality disorder

extreme detachment from social situations and limited emotions in interpersonal relations

simple behavior paradigm

theorizes that people display a behavior to meet a need, if the behavior achieves the goal then you get relief

aversive conditioning

client experiences unpleasant stimuli after behaving undesirably

behavior therapy

principles of social leraning are used to assist people in forming accurate perceptions of their feelings and themselves

cognititve therapy

client is taught ot understand the irrationality of his or her thoughts or behaviors

encounter groups

confrontational strategies are used to allow members to express true feelings

existential therapy

emphasis is placed on free will and using the freee will to develop insight and self-understanding

family therapy

group therapy directed at families

feminist hterapy

focuses on role of society and thae role of discrimination in daily life

flooding therapy

client is placed in a real situation that he or she fears, normally accompanied by a therapist


client watchs another person perform the feared behavior and copies the behavior

person-centered therapy

warm, supportive environment created where a person feels acepted and can reveal true feelings


role playing strategies are used including role-reversal

self-help groups

support groups that assist peopel in displaying behaviors to reduce risk of recitivism to a previous problem behavior

sensitivity groups

strategies are used to promote self-awareness and trust of others

systematic desensitization

principles of relaxation and visualization are used

token economy

tokens are given as rewards for behavior in an effort to shape the behavior

ex of psychosomatic illness

back/chest pain, insomnia, weight loss

electroconvulsive therapy

procedure in which electrodes administer shocks to the patient, who experiencesa a seizure and then lapses into unconsciousness

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