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Terms in this set (141)
NoiseConcept added to Laswell's model by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949). Anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication; includes sounds (e.g., traffic) as well as psychological interferences (e.g., preoccupation).FeedbackVerbal or nonverbal response to a message. The concept of feedback as applied to human communication appeared first in interactive models of communication.Nonverbal CommunicationAll forms of communication other than words themselves; includes inflection and other vocal qualities as well as several other behaviors such as shrugs, blushing, and eye movements.Verbal CommunicationWords and only words; does not include inflection, accent, volume, pitch, or other paralinguistic features of speech.ArbitraryRandom or not necessary. Symbols are arbitrary because there is no need for any particular symbol to stand for a particular referent. For instance, the term twerk has no natural relationship to provocative dancing.AmbiguousSubject to multiple meanings. Symbols are ambiguous because their meanings vary from person to person, context to context, and so forth. The term good friend means "someone to hang out with" to one person and "someone to confide in" to another.AbstractRemoved from concrete reality. Symbols are abstract because they refer to, but are not equivalent to, reality. Words vary in their degree of abstractness. Reading matter is a very abstract term that includes everything from philosophy books to the list of ingredients on a cereal package. Book is a less abstract word. Textbook is even less abstract.Brute FactsJohn Searle (1976, 1995). Objective, concrete phenomena.Institutional FactsJohn Searle (1976, 1995). Meanings people assign to brute facts (objective, concrete phenomena) that are based on human interpretation.Communication RulesShared understandings of what communication means and what behaviors are appropriate in various situations.Regulative RulesOne of two kinds of rules that guide communication. Communication rules that regulate interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things.Constitutive RulesOne of two kinds of rules that guide communication. Communication rules that specify how certain communicative acts are to be counted. (EX: Talking over others = rude)PunctuationDefining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes. Punctuation is subjective and not always agreed on by those involved in the interaction.TotalizingResponding to a person as if one aspect of that person were the total of who the person is. Some people totalize gay men and lesbians by noticing only their sexual orientation.Defines PhenomenaOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. We use words to define ourselves, others, experiences, relationships, feelings, and thoughts. In turn, the labels we use affect how we perceive what we have labeled.Evaluates PhenomenaOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. We describe things we like with language that accents their good qualities and downplays their flaws. The reverse is true of our language for people we don't like.Loaded LanguageAn extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and thus meanings. Terms such as geezer and old fogey incline us to regard older people with contempt or pity. Alternatives such as senior citizen and elder reflect more respectful attitudes.ReappropriationA group's reclamation of a term used by others to degrade the group's members; the treatment of those terms as positive self-descriptions. Aims to remove the stigma from terms that others use pejoratively. For instance, some gays, lesbians, and transgender people have reappropriated the term queer and use it as a positive statement about their identity.Organizes ExperiencesOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. Words organize our perceptions of events and experiences. A criticism may be viewed as constructive if made by someone we categorize as a friend but insulting if made by someone we classify as an enemy.Hypothetical ThoughtOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. Thinking about experiences and ideas that do not exist or are not immediately present to the senses.Allows Self-ReflectionOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. We use language to reflect on ourselves. The self has two aspects: the I and the Me. The I is the spontaneous, creative self. The Me is the socially conscious part of self that monitors and moderates the I's impulses.Defines Relationships and InteractionOne of six ways in which symbolic capacities affect our lives. Our verbal communication conveys messages about how we perceive ourselves and others.Static EvaluationAn assessment that suggests that something is unchanging or static; e.g., "Bob is impatient.".IndexingA technique of noting that every statement reflects a specific time and circumstance and may not apply to other times or circumstances.I-LanguageLanguage that identifies the speaker's or perceiver's thoughts and feelings. (Compare with you-language).You-LanguageLanguage that attributes intentions and motives to another person, usually the person to whom one is speaking. (Compare with I-language).Is AmbiguousOne of five principles that clarify how nonverbal communication works. Nonverbal behavior is ambiguous. We can never be sure that others understand the meanings we intend to express with our nonverbal behavior. Conversely, we can't know whether they read meanings into our behaviors that we do not intend. The ambiguity of nonverbal communication also arises because meanings change over time.Interact with Verbal CommunicationOne of five principles that clarify how nonverbal communication works. Nonverbal behaviors may repeat verbal messages, highlight verbal communication, complement/add to words, contradict verbal messages, or be substituted for verbal behaviors.Regulates InteractionOne of five principles that clarify how nonverbal communication works. Nonverbal communication can organize interaction between people. Although we're usually unaware of how nonverbal actions regulate interaction, we rely on them to know when to speak and when to remain silent.Establishes Relationship-Level MeaningsOne of five principles that clarify how nonverbal communication works. We use nonverbal communication to convey the three dimensions of relationship-level meaning: responsiveness, liking, and power.Reflects Cultural ValuesOne of five principles that clarify how nonverbal communication works. Nonverbal patterns reflect rules of specific cultures. This implies that most nonverbal communication isn't instinctual but is learned in the process of social-ization.KinesicsBody position and body motions, including those of the face, that may be used to communicate or may be interpreted as communicating. (Nonverbal)HapticsNonverbal communication involving physical touch.Physical AppearanceA form of nonverbal communication; how we look, including the cultural meanings, values, and expectations associated with looks.OlfacticsThe perception of scents and odors; one form of nonverbal communication.ArtifactsAny personal object with which one announces one's identities or personalizes one's environment. (Nonverbal)ProxemicsA form of nonverbal communication that involves space and how we use it.Environmental FactorsAny nonverbal element of a setting that affects how we think, feel, act, and communicate.ChronemicsNonverbal communication involving the perception and use of time to define identities and interaction.ParalanguageCommunication that is vocal but not verbal. Paralanguage includes accent, inflection, volume, pitch, and sounds such as murmurs and gasps.SilenceLack of sound. Silence can be a powerful form of nonverbal communication.CultureThe beliefs, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a group of people. Cultures are systems.Social CommunityA group of people who live within a dominant culture yet also belong to another social group or groups that share values, understandings, and practices distinct from those of the dominant culture.Standpoint TheoryA theory that holds that a culture includes a number of social groups that differently shape the perceptions, identities, and opportunities of members of those groups.StandpointThe social, symbolic, and material conditions common to a group of people that influence how they understand themselves, others, and society.Individualism/CollectivismDimension of cultures that refers to the extent to which members of a culture understand themselves as part of and connected to their families, groups, and cultures. (US vs. China)Uncertainty AvoidanceDimension of culture that refers to the extent to which people want to avoid ambiguity and vagueness.Power DistanceDimension of culture that refers to the size of the gap between people with high and low power and the extent to which that is regarded as normal.Masculinity/FemininityDimension of culture that refers to the extent to which a culture values aggressiveness, competitiveness, looking out for yourself, and dominating others, which are typically associated with men, versus gentleness, cooperation, and taking care of others and the natural world, which tend to be associated with women. Also called aggressiveness.Long-Term/Short-Term OrientationDimension of culture that refers to the extent to which members of a culture think about long-term (history and future) versus short-term (present).Low-Context Communication StyleLanguage that is very explicit, detailed, and precise; generally used in individualistic cultures.High-Context Communication StyleAn indirect and undetailed way of speaking that conveys meanings implicitly rather than explicitly; typical of collectivist cultures.Hate GroupsCollections of people who advocate and engage in hatred, aggression, or violence toward members of a particular race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, or any other selected segment of a society.Uncertainty Reduction TheoryThe theory that people find uncertainty uncomfortable and so are motivated to use communication to reduce uncertainty. We ask questions, we listen and observe others, we look for patterns in interaction.Cultural RelativismThe recognition that cultures vary in thought, action, and behavior as well as in beliefs and values; not the same as moral relativism.ResistanceA response to cultural diversity; attacking the cultural practices of others or proclaiming that one's own cultural traditions are superior.AssimilationThe giving up of one's native ways to take on the ways of another culture.ToleranceA response to diversity in which one accepts differences, although one may not approve of or even understand them.UnderstandingA response to cultural diversity that assumes that differences are rooted in cultural teachings and that no traditions, customs, or behaviors are intrinsically better than others.RespectA response to cultural diversity in which one values others' customs, traditions, and values even if one does not actively incorporate them into one's life.ParticipationA response to cultural diversity in which one incorporates some practices, customs, and traditions of other groups into one's life.MultilingualAble to speak and understand more than one language or communication style used in a social group or culture.Communication ClimateThe overall feeling, or emotional mood, between people.ConfirmationThe expressed valuing of another person.RecognitionThe first level of interpersonal confirmation; the communication of awareness that another person exists and is present.AcknowledgementThe second of three levels of interpersonal confirmation; communicating that you hear and understand another's expressed feelings and thoughts.EndorsementThe third/highest of three levels of interpersonal confirmation; the communication of acceptance of another's thoughts and feelings. Not the same as agreement.EthnocentrismThe tendency to assume that one way of life is normal and superior to other ways of life.ConflictThe expression by people who depend on each other of different views, interests, or goals and the perception of differences as incompatible or in opposition.Overt ConflictConflict expressed directly and in a straightforward manner. Discussing a disagreement, honestly expressing different points of view, or heatedly arguing about ideas.Covert ConflictConflict that is expressed indirectly; generally more difficult to manage constructively than overt conflict.Conflict of InterestThe first component of conflict. Goals, interests, or views that are perceived as incompatible.Conflict OrientationsSecond component of conflict. How we perceive conflict. Three basic conflict orientations are lose-lose, win-lose, and win-win.Lose-LoseOne of three orientations to conflict; assumes that everyone loses when conflict occurs.Win-LoseOne of the three orientations toward conflict; assumes that in any conflict one person wins and the other(s) loses.Win-WinOne of the three orientations to conflict; assumes that everyone involved in a conflict can gain.Conflict ResponsesThird component of conflict. How we respond to it. Exit response (leaving conflict), Neglect response (denies/minimizes problems), Loyalty response (staying committed to a relationship despite differences), Voice (Dealing directly with problems and helping the relationship by managing differences)Conflict OutcomesFourth/final component of conflict. Outcomes of the conflict. Resulting decision, strengthen/harm relationship, etc.MediatorOutside third party who facilitates discussion between two or more parties who are in conflict but who does not have the power to make a decision.ArbitratorOutside third party who has the authority to make a decision on a conflict between two or more people.FlamingExcessively insulting another person online, often using language that is derogatory or obscene.BracketingIdentifying and setting aside for later discussion the issues peripheral to a current conflict.GraceGranting forgiveness, putting aside our own needs, or helping another save face when no standard says we should or must do so.SelfA multidimensional process that involves forming and acting from social perspectives that arise and evolve in communication with others and ourselves.Generalized OtherThe perspective that represents one's perception of the rules, roles, and attitudes endorsed by one's group or community.Particular OthersSpecific people who are significant to the self and who influence the self's values, perspectives, and esteem.RaceOne of four key social categories. Race is one of the first aspects of a person that we notice, and it is an aspect of identity that is shaped by broad cultural views.GenderOne of four key social categories. The meaning society attaches to sex.Sexual OrientationOne of four key social categories. Historically and today, heterosexuals are viewed as normal, and people who have other sexual orientations are often regarded as abnormal. Society communicates this viewpoint not only directly but also through privileges given to het-erosexuals but denied to gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender people.Socioeconomic ClassOne of four key social categories. Even though we can't see or point to socioeconomic class, it profoundly shapes how we see ourselves and the lives we live. It affects the kinds of schools, jobs, friends, and lifestyle choices we see as possibilities for ourselves.Attachment StylesThe patterns of interaction between child and primary caregiver that teach the child who he or she is, who others are, and how to approach relationships. Four attachment styles have been identified: anxious/ambivalent, dismissive, fearful, and secure.Secure Attachment StyleOne of the four styles of attachment; a style fostered by a caregiver who communicates with an infant in consistently loving and attentive ways and which inclines people to view themselves and others as worthy and to be comfortable both alone and in intimate relationships.Fearful Attachment StyleOne of the four styles of attachment; characterized by the perception of self as unworthy of love; fostered by dismissive, rejecting, or abusive treatment by a caregiver.Dismissive Attachment StyleOne of the four attachment styles; characterized by a view of others as unworthy of love and the self as adequate yet removed from intimate relationships; fostered by dis-interested, rejecting, or abusive treatment by a caregiverAnxious/Ambivalent Attachment StyleOne of the four styles of attachment; a style, characterized by preoccupation with relationships, in which intimacy is both wanted and feared. It is fostered by inconsistent treatment from a caregiver.Life ScriptsGuides to action based on rules for living and identity. Initially communicated in families; scripts define our roles, how we are to play them, and the basic elements in the plot of our lives.Reflected AppraisalThe image and estimate of ourselves that we perceive others communicate to us.Direct DefinitionCommunication that tells us who we are by explicitly labeling us and reacting to our behaviors; usually occurs first in families and later in interaction with peers and others. (EX: "You're my sweet little girl/strong boy")Self-Fulfilling PropheciesActing in ways that bring about others' or our own expectations or judgments of ourselves.Social ComparisonComparing ourselves with others to form judgments of our talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.Self-DisclosureThe revelation of personal information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover in other ways.CyberbullyingText messages, comments, rumors, embarrassing pictures, videos, and fake profiles that are meant to hurt another person and are sent by e-mail or posted on social networking sites.Self-SabotageSelf-talk that communicates that we are no good, that we can't do something, that we can't change, and so forth; undermines belief in ourselves and motivation to change and grow.UpperA person who communicates positive messages about us and our worth.DownerA person who communicates negatively about us and our worth.VultureA person who attacks a person's self-esteem; may attack others or himself or herself.Personal RelationshipA relationship defined by uniqueness, rules, relationship dialectics, commitment, and embeddedness in contexts. Personal relationships, unlike social ones, are irreplaceable.Social RelationshipReplaceable relationships that tend to follow broad social scripts and rules and in which participants tend to assume conventional social roles in relation to one another. Contrast with personal relationship.PassionIntensely positive feelings and desires for another person. Passion is based on the rewards of involvement and is not equivalent to commitment.CommitmentThe decision to remain in a relationship. One of three dimensions of enduring romantic relationships, commitment has more influence on relationship continuity than does love alone. An advanced stage in the process of escalation in romantic relationships.InvestmentSomething put into a relationship that cannot be recovered should the relationship end. Investments, more than rewards and love, increase commitment.RulesPatterned ways of behaving and interpreting behavior. All relationships develop rules.Relationship DialecticsThe tensions between opposing forces or tendencies that are normal parts of all relationships: autonomy/connection, novelty/predictability, and openness/closedness.Autonomy/ConnectionOne of three relationship dialectics; the tension between the need for personal autonomy, or independence, and connection, or intimacy.Novelty/PredictabilityOne of three relationship dialectics; the tension between the desire for spontaneous, new experiences, and the desire for routines and familiar experiences.Openness/ClosednessOne of three relationship dialectics; the tension between the desire to share private thoughts, feelings, and experiences with intimates and the desire to preserve personal privacy.NeutralizationOne of four responses to relationship dialectics; balancing or finding a compromise between two dialectical poles.SeparationOne of the four responses to relationship dialectics, in which friends or romantic partners assign one pole of a dialectic to certain spheres of activities or topics and assign the contradictory dialectical pole to distinct spheres of activities or topics.SegmentationOne of the four responses to relationship dialectics; segmentation responses meet one dialectical need while ignoring or not satisfying the contradictory dialectical need.ReframingOne of the four responses to relationship dialectics; transcends the apparent contradiction between two dialectical poles and reinterprets them as not in tension.Turning PointParticular experiences and events that cause relationships to become more or less intimate.Matching HypothesisThe prediction that people will seek relationships with others who closely match their values, attitudes, social background, and physical attractiveness.ErosOne of the six styles of loving; passionate, intense, and erotic.StorgeOne of the six styles of loving; based on friendship; even-keeled.LudusOne of the six styles of loving; playful and sometimes manipulative.ManiaOne of the six styles of loving; an obsessive style that often reflects personal insecurity.AgapeOne of the six styles of loving; it is selfless and focused on the other's happiness.PragmaOne of the six styles of loving; based on practical considerations and criteria for attachment.Relationship CultureA private world of rules, understandings, and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create to give meaning to their relationship; the nucleus of intimacy.Equity TheoryThe theory that people are happier and more satisfied with equitable relationships than inequitable ones. In equitable relationships, partners perceive the benefits and costs of the relationship as about equal for each of them.Psychological ResponsibilityThe obligation to remember, plan, and coordinate domestic work and child care. In general, women assume psychological responsibility for child care and housework even when both partners share in the actual doing of tasks.