355 Exam 3 Practice Questions

The Somogyi Effect and Dawn Phenomenon are similar in all the following ways:
a. Both are caused by insulin
b. They are both types of rebound hyperglycemia
c. Both caused by hormones
d. You should eat a light snack before bed to avoid them
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True or False: ADH and Oxytocin are the only direct acting hormones released from the pituitary.TrueAre vitamins ADEK water or fat soluble?fat solubleInsulin Lispro (admelog humalog)Rapid onset--15-20 min Peak-- 0.5-1 hr Can give w/ NPHinsulin regularshort, slower onset--2-4hrs suncut 30-60 min before meal or IV Peak-- 2-4hrs Can mix w/ NPH, sterile water, or normal saline do not mix w/ glargineinsulin isophaneOnset intermediate-- 4-12hrs Peak-- 18-14 hrs Subcut 30 min before 1st meal and again 30 minutes before supper Can mix with aspart, lispro, or regular do not mix with glargineInsulin glargineOnset-- Long, 1.5 or 6hrs depending on the brand Peak-- Lantus= no peak; Toujeo= 12hrs Subcut once daily is given @ nightWhat do you need to look out for with with all diuretics except potassium sparing?HypokalemiaSigns and symptoms of hypokalemiasigns and symptoms of hyperkalemiaCan too much insulin cause hyperkalemia?No too littleWhat other diseases can diabetes lead to?heart disease stroke blindness CKD AKI amputationsAction of Loop Diuretics (Furosemide)inhibit reabsorption of NaCl in nephron loopLoop Diruetics adverse effectshypokalemia, orthostatic hypotension, tinnitus, mausea, diarrhea, dizziness, and fatigue significant: blood dyscrasias, dehydration, electrolyte imbalancesLoop Diruetics Therapeutic effects:large amounts of fluid excreted quickly from kidneys lowers BPWhat do we need to monitor with loop diuretics?BP, Pulse, potassium, weight dailyThiazide Diuretics action:Early DCT block the reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and waterThiazide Diuretics adverse effectshypokalemia, electrolyte depletion, dehydration, hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, coma and blood dyscrasiasThiazide Diuretics therapeutic effectPrevent renal calculi and lower bpThiazide Diuretics monitor?electrolytes esp. potassium, I&O, BUN, Creatinine, do not give at night, weigh daily, encourage foods with potassiumAction of potassium sparing diureticsLate DCT blocks reabsorption of sodium and reduces secretion of potassiumpotassium sparing diuretics therapeutic effectsreduce edema lower BP spare potassium excretionpotassium sparing diuretics adverse effectshyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hepatic and renal damage, tinnitus, rash, sig. dysrhythmias, dehydration, agronulocytosis and other blood dyscrasiaspotassium sparing diuretics things to monitorgive with meals, avoid salt substitutes containing potassium, I&O, watch with potassium supplements, ACE inhibitors may increase hyperkalemia, lithium toxicity risk, digoxin toxicity risk, ASA levels can increaseAddison's DiseaseCushing's disease