What features form the superior border of the neck?
1) Lower border of the mandible 2) Mastoid process of skull 3) Superior nuchal line 4) External occipital protuberance
The midline of the chin where the left and right halves of the mandible join together
Name the landmarks of the mandible
1) Body of mandible 2) Mental symphysis 3) Masseter muscle (external surface of the mandible) 4) Facial artery
Where is the facial artery located?
Inferior border of the mandible near the anterior border of the masseter
What features form the inferior border of the neck?
Anteriorly: jugular/suprasternal notch, sternoclavicular joint, clavicle Posteriorly: spine of CV7
Describe the features of the clavicle
1) Medial end is large and knoblike while lateral end is flattened 2) Anteriorly, medial half is convex while lateral half is concave
What part of the vertebral column is the clavicle level with?
Intervertebral disc between T2 and T3
Name the major landmarks of the neck
1) Superior border (at mandible) 2) Inferior border (at clavicle and spine of CV7) 3) Hyoid bone 4) Thyroid cartilage 5) Sternocleidomastoid muscle 6) 6-8 palpable tracheal rings of cartilage
Location and features of the hyoid bone
1) Unpaired and doesn't articulate with any other bone (suspended by muscles and ligaments) 2) Inferior to inferior aspect of mandible 3) Consists of central body and lesser and greater horns (cornua) on either side 4) Lies in the anterior neck at level of CV3
What is the purpose of the hyoid bone?
Origin and insertion point for several muscles in the anterior neck
Suspends larynx from the hyoid bone
Name the location and features of the thyroid cartilage
1) Unpaired cartilage of the larynx 2) Consists of two laminae that join at the laryngeal prominence 3) Greater/superior and lesser/inferior horn postero-laterally on each side
aka Adam's apple. Located at the midline of the thyroid cartilage where its two laminae meet and fuse
greater/superior horn of the thyroid cartilage
Point at which the thyroid cartilage is suspend from the hyoid bone
lesser/inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage
Articulates inferiorly with the cricoid cartilage
Location of cricoid cartilage
Level of CV6, inferior to the thyroid cartilage
What boundary is marked by the cricoid cartilage?
Division between larynx and trachea
What structures in the neck are found at the level of CV6?
1) Junction between larynx and trachea 2) Junction of pharynx and esophagus 3) Middle cervical sympathetic ganglion 4) Vertebral artery where it first enters the transverse foramen
What structures form the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck?
Anterior: posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle Posterior: anterior border of the trapezius Inferior: clavicle
What structures form the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck?
Medial: midline of the neck Lateral: anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle Superior: inferior border of the mandible
Separates anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
What nerve does the sternocleidomastoid muscle overlie?
Spinal accessory nerve, at the midpoint of the posterior border of the muscle
What nerves innervate the skin of the neck?
C2, C3, C4
superficial cervical fascia
1) Fascia that encircles the neck 2) Contains fat, cutaneous nerves, muscles of facial expression, and their nerves and veins
Name the nerves that make up the cutaneous components of the cervical plexus
Trace the path of the suprascapular artery once it branches from the thyrocervical trunk
1) Passes anterior to scalenus muscle and posterior to sternocleidomastoid muscle 2) Travels behind clavicle to reach scapular notch 3) Crosses above the transverse scapular ligament
Trace the path of the transverse cervical artery once it branches from the thyrocervical trunk
1) Passes between the scalenus anterior and sternocleidomastoid muscles 2) Turns posteriorly and crosses posterior triangle 2) Divides into superficial and deep branches
What structure does the superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery accompany?
Spinal accessory nerve, on the deep surface of the trapezius muscle
What structure does the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery accompany?
Dorsal scapular nerve, on the deep surface of the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles
superficial cervical artery
Instead of branching off of the transverse cervical artery, the superficial branch may arise from the thyrocervical trunk separately as this artery
dorsal scapular artery
Instead of branching off of the transverse cervical artery, the deep branch may arise from the third party of the subclavian artery separately as this artery
What branches are located in the second part of the subclavian artery?
What are the branches of the costocervical trunk?
1) Deep cervical artery 2) Highest intercostal artery
What structures does the deep cervical artery supply?
Deep muscles on the back of the neck
What structures does the highest intercostal artery supply?
First two intercostal spaces
The third part of the subclavian artery has no branches. What is the exception to this rule?
Instead of having a deep branch of the transverse cervical artery, will have a separate branch off of the third part called the dorsal scapular artery
Where is the subclavian vein located?
1) Begins at lateral border of first rib 2) Anterior to scalenus anterior muscle 3) Ends posterior to medial end of clavicle (at the sternoclavicular joint)
What vessels form the brachiocephalic vein?
1) Subclavian vein 2) Internal jugular
Where do the subclavian and internal jugular veins join?
Poster to the medial end of the clavicle (at the sternoclavicular joint)
Where do the thoracic ducts drain into the venous system?
Left: junction of the subclavian and internal jugular veins Right: right subclavian vein
Where is the internal jugular vein located?
1) Begins at the jugular foramen at the base of the skull 2) Within the carotid sheath, deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle 3) Ends posterior to medial end of the clavicle (at the sternoclavicular joint)
What is the function of the anterior jugular vein?
Drains anterior triangle of the neck into the jugular arch
Location of the jugular arch
Above jugular notch of the sternum
What does the jugular arch empty into?
External jugular vein and internal jugular vein (to a lesser extent)
Where is the phrenic nerve located?
Anterior to the subclavian artery, medial to the phrenic nerve
Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve branch from?
Right vagus nerve as it passes the subclavian artery
Define the root of the neck
Base of cervical region that is 1) Superior to manubrium and transitions into the superior mediastinum 2) Anterior to the muscles of the prevertebral region and the scalene muscles 3) Lateral to the visceral compartment of the neck
Where does the superior cardiac branch arise from?