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A.P.E.S. Chapter 9 Multiple Choice and Free Response Questions

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What percentage of Earth's water is fresh water?
3 percent
Which of the following contrasts between confined and unconfined aquifers is correct?
Only confined aquifers can produce artesian wells.
Which of the following statements about surface waters is not correct?
Dikes are human-made structures that keep ocean water from moving inland.
Which of the following statements about dams is not correct?
Most dams are built to generate electricity.
Which of the following statements about aqueducts is correct?
Aqueducts designed as open canals can lose a lot of water via evaporation.
Which of the following statements about desalination is correct?
Distillation requires more energy than reverse osmosis.
Which of the following lists of household water uses is in the correct order, from highest to lowest?
Toilet > bathing > laundry > cooking and drinking
Which of the following lists of agricultural irrigation techniques is in the correct order, from least efficient to most efficient?
Furrow irrigation, flood irrigation, spray irrigation, drip irrigation
Which of the following statements about the industrial use of water is not correct?
Its use is becoming less efficient
Which of the following is not a water conservation technique?
Flood irrigation
Using a cross section of the ground, draw the water table, an unconfined aquifer, and a confined aquifer.
Refer to figure 9.2 on page 237 of the Friedland and Relyea "Environmental Science for AP" textbook.
Explain the factors that create an artesian well
Artesian wells are created by drilling a hole into impermeable rock and thereby accessing a confined aquifer. The water in a confined aquifer is under tremendous pressure due to the soil rock that confines it; thus, when it is drilled into, water bursts forth to the Earth's surface.
Describe the concerns that scientists have regarding the pumping of water from confined aquifers.
Confined aquifers take 10,000 to 20,000 years to recharge their water supply. When water is rapidly withdrawn from a confined aquifer, the watertable consequently diminishes and shallow wells dry up. If water is drawn up from only one well, a cone of depression, or an area where there is no longer groundwater, forms.
Explain how cones of depression near the coasts of continents can lead to saltwater intrusion of water wells.
When fresh water is withdrawn from a coastal watertable in large quantities, pressure in the aquifers decreases dramatically. Salt water pushing against the coastline can now filter into the de-pressured chamber, resulting in salt water intrusion.
What are the benefits that dams provide to humans?
Dams generate electricity, create areas for recreation, and provide food sources.
What are the costs of dams to human society?
Dam building uses large amounts of energy and materials, displaces local habitats, and can take many years to complete.
What are the negative impacts of dams on the environment?
Dams interrupt the natural flow of water. This displaces the migration of fish and can restrict seasonal flooding. Many species that have adapted to these factors are negatively affected by dams.
If dams have both costs and benefits, how should we decide when a dam should be built?
Dams should only be built when the benefits of building them greatly outweigh the costs.