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197 terms

Organizational Behavior Midterm

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Surface level diversity
differences in easily perceived characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, age or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes
Deep level diversity
differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better
Discrimination
noting of a difference between things; often we refer to unfair discrimination, which means making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group
Biographical characteristics
personal characteristics-such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure-that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity
Ability
an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
Intellectual abilities
the capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving
General mental ability (GMA)
an overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions
Physical abilities
the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics
Diversity management
the process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others
Manager
an individual who achieves goals through other people
Organization
a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals
Planning
a process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities
Organizing
determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
Leading
a function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts
Controlling
monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations
Technical skills
the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise
Human skills
the ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups
Conceptual skills
the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
Organizational behavior
a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness
Systematic study
looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
Evidence-based management (EBM)
the basing of managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence
Intuition
a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research
Psychology
the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals
Social psychology
an area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another
Sociology
the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture
Anthropology
the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities
Contingency variables
situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables
Workforce diversity
the concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups
Positive organizational scholarship
an area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential
Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices
situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct
Model
an abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real world phenomenon
Dependent variable
a response that is affected by an independent variable
Productivity
a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency
Effectiveness
achievement of goals
Efficiency
the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it
Absenteeism
the failure to report to work
Turnover
voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
Deviant workplace behavior
voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization
Job satisfaction
a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Independent variable
the presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable
Four Functions of Management
Planning, organizing, leading, controlling
Attitudes
evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
Cognitive component
the opinion or belief segment of an attitude
Affective component
the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
Behavioral component
an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Cognitive dissonance
any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Job satisfaction
a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Job involvement
the degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth
Psychological empowerment
Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work
Organizational commitment
the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
Affective commitment
an emotional attachment to an organization and a belief in its values
Continuance commitment
the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared with leaving it
Normative commitment
an obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons
Perceived organizational support (POS)
the degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
Employee engagement
an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does
Core self-evaluations
bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person
Exit
dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization
Voice
dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions
Loyalty
dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve
Neglect
dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen
Affect
a broad range of feelings that people experience
Emotions
intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
Moods
feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
Positive affect
a mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end
Negative affect
a mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end
Positivity offset
the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on)
Affect intensity
individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions
Illusory correlation
the tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no connection
Emotional labor
a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
Emotional dissonance
inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project
Felt emotions
an individual's actual emotions
Displayed emotions
emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job
Surface acting
hiding one's inner feelings and forging emotional expressions in responses to display rules
Deep acting
trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules
Affective events theory (AET)
a model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors
Emotional intelligence (EI)
the ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information
Emotional contagion
the process by which peoples' emotions are caused by the emotions of others
Personality
the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others
Heredity
factors determined at conception; one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup
Personality traits
enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types
Big Five Model
a personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions
Extraversion
a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive
Agreeableness
a personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting
Conscientiousness
a personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized
Emotional stability
a personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative)
Openness to experience
a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiousity
Core self-evaluation
the degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment
Machiavellianism
the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
Narcissim
the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement
Self-monitoring
a personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
Type A personality
aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people
Proactive personality
people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
Values
basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
Value system
a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity
Terminal values
desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
Instrumental values
preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values
Personality-job fit theory
a theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover
Power distance
a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally
Individualism
a national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
Collectivism
a national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
Masculinity
a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialim
Femininity
a national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society
Uncertainty avoidance
a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
Long-term orientation
a national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
Short-term orientation
a national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations
Perception
a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
Attribution theory
an attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Self-serving bias
the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors
Selective Perception
the tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, and attitudes
Halo effect
the tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Contrast effect
evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Stereotyping
judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs
Self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
Decisions
choices made from among two or more alternatives
Problem
a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state
Rational
characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints
Rational decision-making model
a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
Bounded rationality
a process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
Intuitive decision making
an unconscious process created out of distilled experience
Anchoring bias
a tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information
Confirmation bias
the tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments
Availability bias
the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them
Escalation of commitment
an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information
Randomness error
the tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
Risk aversion
the tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff
Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome
Utilitarianism
a system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number
Whistle-blowers
individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders
Creativity
the ability to produce novel and useful ideas
Three-component model of creativity
the proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation
Motivation
the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of five needs-physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization-in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
Lower-order needs
needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs
Self-actualization
the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming
Higher-order needs
needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
Theory X
the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Theory Y
the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
Two-factor theory
a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory
Hygiene factors
factors-such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary-that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied
McClelland's theory of needs
a theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation
Need for achievement
the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
Need for power
the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation
the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Self-determination theory
a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation
Cognitive evaluation theory
a version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling
Self-concordance
the degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values
Goal-setting theory
a theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
Management by objectives (MBO)
a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal process
Self-efficacy
an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Reinforcement theory
a theory that says that behavior is a function of its consequences
Behaviorism
a theory that argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner
Social-learning theory
the view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience
Equity theory
a theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
Distributive justice
perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
Organizational justice
an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
Procedural justice
the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Interactional justice
the perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity, concern, and respect
Expectancy theory
a theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Job design
the way the elements in a job are organized
Job characteristics model (JCM)
a model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback
Skill variety
the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities
Task identity
the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significance
the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
Autonomy
the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
Feedback
the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance
Motivating potential score (MPS)
a predictive index that suggests the motivating potential in a job
Job rotation
the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another
Job enrichment
the vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work
Flextime
flexible work hours
Job sharing
an arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
Telecommuting
working from home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to the employer's office
Employee involvement
a participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organization's success
Three criteria to being successful
Technical skills, work ethic, and business personality
Need Theories
Maslow's Hierarchy, McClelland's needs, and the two-factor theory focus on needs
Three focuses of Expectancy theory
effort-performance relationship, performance-reward relationship, rewards-personal goals relationship
Participative Management
a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
Representative Participation
a system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees
Variable-pay Program
a pay plan that bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance
Piece-rate pay plan
a pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed
Merit-based pay plan
a pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings
Bonus
a pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance
Skill-based pay
a pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do
Profit-sharing plan
an organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company's profitability
Gainsharing
a formula-based group incentive plan
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
a company-established benefits plan in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits
Flexible benefits
a benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation
Big Five Personality Model
extraversion,, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Myers-Briggs characteristics
extraverted v introverted, sensing v intuitive, thinking v feeling, and judging v perceiving
Hofstede's framework for assessing cultures
managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. power distance, individualism v collectivism, masculinity v femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term v short-term orientation
Six Basic Emotions
anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise
Overconfidence Bias
overestimating performance and ability
Individual differences
personality, gender, and mental ability
Organizational constraints
performance evaluation, reward systems, formal regulations, system-imposed time constraints, historical precedents
Three ethical decision criteria
utilitarianism, make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, and impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially to ensure justice or an equitable distribution of benefits and costs