21 terms


This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
Which is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream.
Human urine can have as much as __________ times the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is why it is called hypertonic.
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?
the myogenic mechanism
PCTs are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
hydrogen ions.
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones?
decreased urine volume
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
the body's water volume is high.
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
to supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla.
Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
diabetes mellitus
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on
the countercurrent multiplier system.
Which muscle is located in the bladder?
Which is not a portion of the urethra?
internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term for
the elimination of urine.
Which of the following urinary tract disorders seems most likely to occur in someone who frequently participates in marathon runs?
Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat
renal calculi.
What is the most common urinary symptom of diabetes mellitus?