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outer layer of kidney skin substance


inner portion of kidney


triangular divisions of medulla


narrow, innermost end of pyramid


expansion of upper end of ureter; lies inside kidney


cup-shaped division of renal pelvis


consist of renal corpuscle and renal tubule

renal corpuscle

bowman's capsule and glomerulus

bowman's capsule

the cup-shaped top


network of blood capillaries surrounded by bowman's capsule

renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule

function of kidneys

excretes toxins and nitrogenous wastes; regulates levels of many chemicals in blood; maintains water balance; helps regulate blood pressure via secretion of renin

two main regions of kidney

cortex and medulla

formation of urine

filtration, reabsorption, secretion


goes on continually in renal corpuscles; glomerular blood pressure causes water and dissolved substances to filter out of glomeruli into bowman's capsulse; normal glomerular filtration rate is 125 ml per minute


movement of substances out of renal tubules into blood in periteubular capillaries; water, nutrients, and ions are reabsorbed by osmosis from proximal convoluted tubules


movement of substances into urine in the distal and collecting tubules from bood in peritubular capillaries; hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs are secreted by active transport; ammonia is secreted by diffusion

control of urine volume

mainly by the posterior pituitary hormone's ADH, which decreases it


decreases urine output


increases urine output

ureters (structure)

narrow long tubes with expanded upper end located inside kidney and lined with mucous membrane

ureters (function)

drain urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder

urinary bladder (structure)

elastic muscular organ, capable of great expansion; lined with mucous membrane arranged in rugae, like stomach mucosa

urinary bladder (function)

storage of urine before voiding, voiding

urethra (structure)

narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior; lined with mucous membrane; opening of urethra to the exterior called urinary meatus

urethra (function)

passage of urine from bladder to exterior of the body; passage of male reproductive fluid from the body


passage of urine from body, AKA urination and voiding

internal urethral sphincter

involuntary regulatory sphincter

external urethral sphincter

voluntary regulatory sphincter

emptying reflex

initiated by stretch reflex in bladder wall; bladder wall contracts; internal sphincter relaxes, external sphincter relaxes and urination occurs

urinary retention

urine produced but not voided

urinary suppression

no urine produced but bladder is normal


urine voided involuntarily; may be caused by spinal injury or stroke; retention of urine may cause cystitis


bladder infection

overactive bladder

called interstitial cystitis; amounts voided are small; extreme urgency and pain are common

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