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function of kidneys
excretes toxins and nitrogenous wastes; regulates levels of many chemicals in blood; maintains water balance; helps regulate blood pressure via secretion of renin
goes on continually in renal corpuscles; glomerular blood pressure causes water and dissolved substances to filter out of glomeruli into bowman's capsulse; normal glomerular filtration rate is 125 ml per minute
movement of substances out of renal tubules into blood in periteubular capillaries; water, nutrients, and ions are reabsorbed by osmosis from proximal convoluted tubules
movement of substances into urine in the distal and collecting tubules from bood in peritubular capillaries; hydrogen ions, potassium ions, and certain drugs are secreted by active transport; ammonia is secreted by diffusion
narrow long tubes with expanded upper end located inside kidney and lined with mucous membrane
urinary bladder (structure)
elastic muscular organ, capable of great expansion; lined with mucous membrane arranged in rugae, like stomach mucosa
narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior; lined with mucous membrane; opening of urethra to the exterior called urinary meatus
passage of urine from bladder to exterior of the body; passage of male reproductive fluid from the body
initiated by stretch reflex in bladder wall; bladder wall contracts; internal sphincter relaxes, external sphincter relaxes and urination occurs
urine voided involuntarily; may be caused by spinal injury or stroke; retention of urine may cause cystitis
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