Compare Hirschi's social bonding theory with Sutherland's theory of differential association. How are they similar? How are they different?
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Classic strain theories: Delinquents/criminals are normal people who have undergone the strain (pressure) to commit crime from their inability to achieve valued goals.

Revised strain theory: Not as much of an emphasis on poverty, states that people can experience a plethora of strains that lead to crime
Failure to achieve positively valued goals
Removal of positively valued stimuli
Negative stimuli
The dominance of the economic institution weakens the social control functions of other institutions, like family, based on the anomie theory where cities with an imbalance of institutional power will have higher crime rates, thus weakening the social control functions like political, family, and educational institutions.
What are the possible links between self-control theory and social bonding theory?Self-control theory and social bonding theory are similar because commitment is a main element in both theories.How do control theories incorporate the family as a cause of crime?There is little to no relationship between a broken home and child delinquency, only the relationship between a juvenile and their parents affect the likelihood of delinquency.What is the major premise of classic strain theories?Major premise of classic strain theories is that delinquents/criminals are normal people with conventional values and beliefs. The strain (pressure) to commit crime comes from people's inability to achieve valued goals.How did Merton explain deviance and how did his theory provide impetus to the classic strain theories of Cohen and Cloward and Ohlin?Merton explained deviance by saying that there is a disjunction between goals (the American Dream) and the means (legitimate opportunities) to achieve those goals. He stated that a disjunction causes anomie or normlessness, and there are 5 different ways to respond to it: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. Cohen and Ohlin agreed with Merton about the disjunction, but argued that Merton failed to recognize that not all lower-class boys have access to illegitimate means for achieving economic success.Akers, Sellers, and Jennings say that "Agnew's theory represents a significant advancement beyond classic strain theory." How is it a significant advancement?Robert Agnew's revised strain theory is an important advance over classic strain theories by not emphasizing poverty as a central cause of crime.What is "institutional anomie" according to Messner and Rosenfeld? How does institutional-anomie theory extend Merton's anomie theory?According to Steven Messer and Richard Rosenfield, institutional anomie says that crime rates will be high in nations with an imbalance of institutional power. It extends Merton's anomie theory by bringing up the fact that imbalance will affect aspects of our daily life like family, politics, etc.Why do most researchers today argue that social class is unrelated to crime and delinquency?Researchers today argue that social class is unrelated to crime and delinquency because of the revised strain theory stating that strain can come from a plethora of other sources, and for the most part not poverty.Compare Akers' social learning theory with Sutherland's differential association theory.Differential association theory sees people committing crime only when they have learned an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law,that is, only through attitude transference. Social learning theory includes this kind of attitude transference, but it also includes imitation and peer pressure (crime resulting from delinquent/criminal peer association that does not involve attitude transference). Both say that criminal behavior is learned, key difference is the emphasis on attitudes.Which theories have problems with circular (tautological) reasoning?Theories that have problems with tautology (circular reasoning) (Someone committing a crime because greedy; greedy because they commit crime) are: Strain theory, social disorganizationWhat are the policy implications of differential association/social learning theory?Policy implications of differential association are separation vs. integration and provo experiment and for social learning theory are preventative rehab programs, mentoring, behavior modifications.What causes low self-control according to Gottfredson and Hirschi? What can be done to correct people's low self-control?People have low self-control due to child rearing - parents not supervising their children and not punishing children's deviant behavior. There is no way to fix someone's low self-control after the ages of 7, 8, and 9.Compare Cohen's classic strain theory with Cloward and Ohlin's classic strain theory. How are they similar? How are they different?Cohen's classical strain theory vs. Cloward and Ohlin's classical strain theory Cohen's classical theory: Believes that the primary strain for crime and delinquency is poverty. Cloward and Ohlin: Believed that poverty has little to do with crime and there are a plethora of other possible strains. Both agree that there is a disjunction between goals and means in the U.S.What are the policy implications of Hirschi's social bonding theory?Policy implications of Hirschi's social bonding theory: Job training, family counseling, prison, incarceration, work, family, etc.How is the "zone of transition" important in social disorganization theory?People in the zone of transition experience the most anomie and discrimination. Zone of transition: Large number of immigrants, low-income families, and constantly shifting population.