APUSH Period 3

King William's War
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1689-97. British colonists fought against the French. New England and Northern New York bore the brunt of most of the fighting in the colonies. the goal was to capture Canada. colonists didn't want to participate. 3 lessons learned: colonists suffered consequences by not helping, NE felt unsafe until French left Canada, and the colonists needed aid of the British army to drive the French out.
1702-13. France allied with Spain. England, Holland, and Austria allies. 11 year struggle. the colonies faced enemies on the northern and southern borders, in the south the colonies were at war with the Tuscarora natives who were angered by NC land seizures. a majority of mass revenue went to supporting the war, increased taxes.
1740. France Spain and Prussia were at war with England and Austria. colonists viewed this war as a protestant crusade. pretext for the French Indian war as Britain gained Quebec, which was used as a bargaining chip, and they used it to buy India. This set the colonies up for the following war which they thought was unfair of them to fight considering Britain didn't protect them and gave away Quebec.
1754-1763. it started in the colonies and caused issues in Europe. The colonists were fighting the French to try and get them out of the Ohio Valley. the British were sent over to help them fight, but quickly realized they were not good at fighting the French and their Native Allies. It wasn't until William Pitt put the colonists in charge of the battles did they defeat the French, because the colonists knew how to fight their ways.
The British Prime Minister hears about the colonies losing, decides to listen to them and agrees they need to change their fighting style. this is when William Pitt is put in charge and lets the colonists fight how they want to. this is when they start winning the war. colonists take back Lewisburg, Quebec, and Montreal. they cut off the french completely and cease fire in 1761.
Effectsthe colonists felt safe and they also realized that Britain wasn't invincible, they could win a war. Brits treat colonists like commoners. they have to pay a lot of taxes because Britain was in huge debt. taxes being raised is the catalyst for the revolution.Pontiac's RebellionPontiac chief of Ottawa Tribe tried to unite what was left of the other tribes throughout the Ohio Valley and try to have one last effort against the colonies. they started going after colonial settlements. The British govt gets Native leaders to sit down and talk and back off. they negotiate that if the natives stop attacking, the British will give them supplies. The first shipment of supplies has blankets smeared with smallpox. this destroys them and is the first instance of biological warfare.Proclamation of 1763the colonists felt it was their right to expand, but Britain said they couldn't. the British created a line which claimed the colonists couldn't expand into native land and take away from the profit the brits were making. the colonists ignored this line and it caused issues between the crown and the colonies.saluatory neglectthe colonists had been allowed to do whatever they wanted for years and now britain was imposing all these rules, so they ignored them. the british wanted materials and money and now that the colonists had organized themselves well britain wanted in on their profit.Sugar Act of 1764first british tax with intention of raising revenue. up until this point taxes existed to stop the colonies from buying goods from other ships. increase of Red Coats to prevent smuggling and also so there could be more tax collectors. the colonists protested because if they did not live in England, why should they pay taxes to them? british compromised because of protests but got stricter.Quartering Act of 1765there needed to be a place to house and feed red coats. residents were required to house them. colonists had an issue with this.Stamp Act 1765taxes on official documents, even paper goods and newspaper. the colonists were not thrilled!!!Admiralty CourtsBritish courts designed to try cases of smuggling or violations of taxes n stuff. guilty until proven innocent, no jury.Stamp Act Congressa meeting of the colonies built off of Benny Frank's idea. held in nyc, 9 of 13 colonies attend. they divide into two different forms of protest, informal and formal protestInformal Protestboycotts, groups like the Sons and Daughters of Liberty are created where they get together to discuss rights ad form huge push back, acts of violence against the tax collectors such as tarring and feathering to get the point across that the colonists are unhappy.Formal Protestformal, written non-importation agreements. Declaration of Rights and Grievances was written explaining to the crown why the colonists are unhappy. The Stamp Act is repealed because of this in 1766.Declaratory Act 1766Brits shortly realized they look weak for giving in to the Stamp Act so they have to remind the colonies they are not independent and the crown is still in charge.Townshend Acts 17674 luxury taxes: tea, paint, paper, and lead. it was built into the price of items so tax collectors were not needed. Sons and Daughters of Liberty continued protesting by smuggling but the colonists weren't as mad because like, these are luxury items, nobody's really that mad over not having lead.New York Legislature SuspendedMay 1767. they refused to follow the quartering act because the number of red coats in NY was overwhelming. parliament took away their charter and brits told the red coats to start handling the colonists more harshly.Boston MassacreMarch 5th, 1770. long story short a bunch of drunk dudes from the bar started pushing a group of red coats around and they were getting really mad and then someone somewhere yelled "fire" and then guns started being shot and it was a whole big mess and then 5 colonists were dead and 6 injured. became a huge story for propaganda and was used to try and get the southern colonies to pay attention to what was going on up north and want to help and assist in the revolution.Townshend Act RepealedApril 1770. in parliament there were some people on the side of the colonists, Lord North (PM) believed in trying to keep the colonists calm, he believed in compromise. he gives back the luxury tax but keeps the tax on tea.King George IIItook the crown from his father after the French Indian War. he was young, he had a lot of potential, but he was mentally unwell and this made him very unstable and depressed and power hungry. he didn't want to give up his power to the colonies.Boston Tea PartyDec 1773. the passion for patriotism was starting to die down but there was this whole scandal with the Dutch East India company because they had a lot of tea to sell and Britain, having an absolute monopoly over everything, told them they could sell tea in the colonies. this really pissed the S+Ds of Liberty off because people were buying tea from british backed businesses instead of boycotting it. so one night a bunch of men over the course of 3 hours disguised themselves and snuck on some ships and destroyed thousands of pounds of tea in the boston harbor.Intolerable Acts1774. the brits came down and punished Boston for misbehaving so they shut down their harbor completely and put a bunch of red coats in charge to oversee meetings and stuff so nobody could plan anything against the crown again. codes started forming for communication.Quebec ActJune 1774. the brits let france in quebec have everything the colonists have been asking for because france is behaving! this gets the colonies mad af. the french hardly pay taxes. some of them get to stay in the ohio river valley.First Continental Congress1774. Benny Franks has the brilliant idea that everyone gets together yet again. 12 out of 13 colonies show up this time. (georgia didn't go they didn't really give a F about the whole revolution thing). they meet in Philly and write a List of Grievances called the "Olive Branch Petition" stating why they are so unhappy. they agree to meet again if things escalate. the colonies have formed an alliance.Lexington and ConcordApril 1775. in search of Sam Adams and Hancock, the Red Coats are trying to take the munitions arsenal in Concord. militias had been training for this and preparing for war. Paul Revere, the horse boy, went and warned everybody that the british were coming. "The Shot Heard Around the World" it is unsure who fired first, the colonists or the red coats. the colonists knew they needed to retreat, they couldn't fight the red coats head on. they retreat to northern concord and end up cutting the brits off and kill 250 red coats and the red coats retreat, and they are unsuccessful in taking concord.Second Continental CongressMay 1775. because of Lexington, the men got back together and they decide early on to stay loyal and protect themselves. they start to raise money and adopted the measures to start a continental army and navy.Battle of Bunker Hill1775. one of the biggest battles of the Revolution before it even officially began. The Bostonian to Red Coat ratio is almost equal. upset colonists start harassing British troops from the highest point in Boston (Bunker Hill). 6 weeks prior to this battle Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen went up to Canada and take a group of men to push cannons back to Bunker Hill. The two forts they took from were Fort Ticondorga and Crown Point. The British end up winning this battle and take the hill only because the colonists ran out of supplies.Rebellion According to the Crown1775. King gets word of concord and hears the colonists are in rebellion. mobilizes troops.Hired Hessiansthe British don't have time to mobilize British troops so they hire soldiers. Hessians are soldiers you can hire to work for you. they're good fighters but they don't really care to fight the revolution. a lot of them get to America with money and decide to just run off and start over in America. hiring them got the colonists really mad.Canadacolonists hope they can convince the French Canadians to join their side and make a 14th colony. we had to get Canada on our side so the British couldn't attack from Canada. the French didn't aid us because of the Quebec act gave them freedoms the colonies didn't have and they did not want to give that up. some of the first official battles were fought on the Canadian border. when the revolutionary war fully started troops were dropped in NY and BostonColonists Shifting Viewsthe colonists have to decide what side they're on: colonists or brits. Norfolk, VA influences where the colonists stand. Jan 1776 British destroyed the village. the city was leveled. people were mad at the brits for this. Boston, March 17th 1776 Washington's men are able to push the Red Coats out. this proves that the continental army can get stuff done. two militia in the south are able to push brits out. this gave the colonists hope. Jan 1776 Thomas Paine publishes one of the most famous pieces of propaganda.Enlightenment Influencecomes from Philosophy in Europe. people are starting to embrace the views and its biggest influence was on our development of government.Lockehuman rights, natural rights. late 1600s puts out idea that every single human is born with the right to control themselves. every person has the right to the property they live and farm on. believes people have the right to own part of nature where they were work (right to property). he believes the government has a right to exist but its only purpose is to protect human natural rights. if the government chooses to overstep and take natural rights away, the people have the right to overthrow and take power back. government exists to represent the people and thats it.Rousseaubuilt on Locke's ideas and extended the social contract to be a social compact. he believed every person had to pay attention to the government and that everyone should be contributing. he believed in looking out for the whole community, not just yourself. civic virtue.Declaration of IndependenceThomas Jefferson wrote the declaration with the help of Benny Franks and John Adams. his first draft gave liberty to absolutely everybody cause he was a whole supporter of the (very controversial) human rights thing. feminists king cause his wife helped him with a lot of the writing and he believed in women's rights.British vs. Coloniststhe biritsh were well trained, highly supplied military, they had the largest navy in the world, and they had loyalists helping from within the colonies. the colonists had no money, no industry to produce their raw materials, the natives supported the brits and were against the colonists, but they did have a homefield advantage and knew how to fight and they had some allies AND it was hard to take all 13 colonies at once because they could fight and to get to one you had to get through all of 'emLoyaliststhe fighting of the revolution was a minority movement, less than 50% of the colonists supported fighting. 16% of people called themselves patriots. so, there were quite a few loyalists. the loyalists were mostly the wealthy people who benefit from britain being in charge. the least amount of loyalists were in new england, so a lot of them were in the south. a majority of the country was on neither side and just stayed out of it.African Slavesthe slaves used the revolution as an opportunity for freedom. Britain offered them freedom if they fought for them in the war, so they did. but, once they got there, they were still basically used as slaves. the loyalists got a lot of slaves on their side seeing as typically slavery was happening in the south, not in new england, and thats where the loyalists were.Exodusa huge group of loyalists realize they can't stay in the colonies as a loyalist, they're scared of persecution. there wasn't any immediate colonist on colonist violence, but the patriots took their farms and estates and used this to fund the war. so, a lot of loyalists fled to Britain. Britain was concerned about the treatment of the loyalists.WashingtonWashington pushed the British out of Boston and figured they'd go for NYC next. he sent as many Continental soldiers as he could to NYC. July 1776 saw one of the biggest fleets on the Atlantic coastline with 500 ships of 30,000 British soldiers- it was the largest invasion until D-Day. New York will never see another attack until 9/11. a retreat was inevitable and in late July Washington left NYC in the hands of the brits.New Yorkspies in NYC were how the patriots figured out Benedict Arnold was a traitor. Washington retreats across the Hudson anticipating General Howe (Red Coat) would follow him but he didn't. Howe knew winter was coming and he liked having NYC so he stayed. this gave Washington the chance to set up a solid information chain and regroup his army. Washington's spies set up a bunch of Hessian soldiers in the winter of 1776 and Washington added 1000 hessian soldiers to his army because they wanted cabbage.Burgoyne's Blundering InvasionSpring 1777. The British realized if they could cut off New England they could kinda shut down the whole revolutionary war patriotism thing and the colonies would fall apart. Burgoyne and Howe plan to split the country up the Hudson River. B starts in Canada and takes his army down the Hudson. Doesn't think anyone is going to stop them (he was super egotistical) so he encouraged his army to take their wives and mistresses and all their belongings with them for the march. The colonists watch as this army makes its way cluelessly down the Hudson, the whole time the patriots are following and laughing at them. When B gets to where he needs to be he realizes Howe isn't coming up the Hudson to help fight.General Howe Loyalistshe wanted to target the loyalists to get them to help the Brits during the war. after the winter of 1776 Howe went to Philly to get some wealthy loyalists together, and he was making such huge headway against Washington in Philly he never left to help Burgoyne.Saratoga 1777October 17th, 1777 Benedict Arnold swoops in and lead up to 1000 militia men into a battle with these exhausted British soldiers. easy W. very significant event as it proved to the rest of the world that the colonists could defend themselves and may have a chance to win the war.Valley Forge 1Winter of 1777-78. Arnold is proving to be a great soldier but he feels the army is not treating him the way he deserves to be treated. he wants more money and a higher rank (he couldn't really get a higher rank because he had a ruined leg from being shot in the war). he was bitter after Saratoga because he felt he received no recognition. he went to Philly and was introduced to one of "the most beautiful women in the colonies" and she had been told to make him fall in love with her so she could make him a spy for the British. obviously he folded like a lawn chair.Valley Forge 2cont'd from 1. Washington took his men to Valley Forge over the winter, small pox hit hard but they figured out immunizations, the army was low-key losing will to fight but then morale got boosted and new men got brought in and some Prussian soldier came and trained them and prepared them to fight the rest of the war.Revolution in DiplomacyBenny Franks crossed the ocean to ask France if they'd be willing to help in the war and give money and supplied and he encourages the colonies to form an alliance so they'd have less debt. he mentions the cease fire Howe had mentioned. the continental congress is considering it. Ben then tells France about the treaty and France agrees to help because Britain is considering ending the war. Ben makes it clear America is independent and France gains nothing. France's only condition was that they had to be present at the peace conference to write the treaty. Feb 6th, 1779 Ben signs alliance treaty and brings it to congress and now we're in a war allied with FranceWider Warthe alliance with France and makes the war wider, we also gain alliance with Spain. France helps us from the water and they supply resources to us and go after brits on the water. France ends up producing 50% of forces for us. without French alliance we would have lost.RochambeauFrench general who showed up with 16000 French troops and landed in Newport, RI. he takes his men to NYC so they can take over in New York and give Washington a chance to fight elsewhere in the war.Arnold = Traitor1780 it is exposed that Arnold is a traitor the spry ring had let Washington know that he was against them, so Washington put Arnold in charge of West Point which was seemingly a useless base. Arnold tries to give West Point to the British because he figures they could use it but Washington and his men catch him being a traitor. he ends up not being able to live in America so he goes to Britain. Washington had a hard time trusting people after thisCornwallis in the Southjust below General Howe. he takes his men out of NY down South in 1780 and hits Savannah, Georgia. but the south know how to fight so they wipe out the Brits. Georgia was an easy colony to take but backwoods fighting was brutal. The brits ignored the rules of war. the colonists used the wait and retreat method to lure the Red Coats and kill them in the woods. Cornwallis couldn't succeed in North Carolina so he planned to ambush Yorktown, VA. between the spy ring and the French troops on the water, the patriots were able to convince washington to send his men to yorktown to stop cornwallis.Land and Sea Frontierthere was a lot of native violence, the frontier was very bloody mainly because the natives sided with Britain. the Iroquois was the only tribe that sided with the colonies. The sea frontier had the French. The colonists had privateers. the continental congress allowed pirating of British ships. con of pirating: took men off the battlefield but pro: they were supplying the colonies with stuff for the war (food, weapons, gold)YorktownWashington marched his men 300 miles to Yorktown to beat Cornwallis from getting there. Oct 19th, 1781. Cornwallis was short on men and supplies so Washington won easy cause his men were strong and ready to fight. everyone thought it was the end of the war but King George didn't want to surrender so the war went on for one more year after this. the British become so focused on the colonies they start losing claim to other parts of the world. the war also causes a shift in parliament when "Whigs" become the majority and don't favor the king so they vote to end the war.Treaty of Paris1783 Benny Franks, John Adams, and John Jay negotiate the treaty with Britain. they tell Britain they will not negotiate unless they are recognized as an independent nation. the biggest goal for the treaty was being recognized as independent. France isn't present and they could have been pissed since it was in their agreement to be at the treaty but they are just happy the war is over so they don't really care at this point.Outcomes of TreatyBoundaries. we gained all the way up to the Mississippi river. Britain would get Florida. one thing that is super vague is the fact that they didn't give Britain a set time to be out of the country. this causes issues (see war of 1812) and there was no consideration made to preexisting native treaties over land. the brits did ask that the US gov not persecute loyalists. britain also asks if we could try and pay debt to merchants cause britain lowkey still broke"Revolution"this idea of "revolution" is important ESPECIALLY on the exam. the term applied to the war because the people wanted "change". historians debate whether the idea of change/revolution started in the minds of the people before the war ever happened, or if it was after we won the war and started to implement change.property rightsthe right to the land you own and the land you produce labor on. if you work from it its yours. hypocritical because natives don't get the right to live on the land they've been on since long before the colonists. women also don't get any rights, her land and her children belong to her husband.economic inequalityif you don't have money you don't have land so you cannot vote. therefore "democracy" isn't true in US because not everyone can vote. 20% of America is in poverty after the war. a majority of these people are soldiers who received no money from being in the war and lost all their land and came back having nothing. some states saw the inequality happening. Pennsylvania is the first state to get rid of voting rights and let every (white) man vote regardless of if he has land.womenduring the war they started the Daughters of the Revolution. a lot of them farmed and took care of the house while the men were at war. women disguised themselves as soldiers to go fight in the war, they'd travel with infantry and run water to hydrate the men and cool the cannons. Republican Motherhood BIG concept women were put on a pedestal because it was believed they were the ones raising the future members of the republic. They were the ones teaching the children civic virtue and these other fundamental beliefs in democracy. women weren't as valued anymore during economic shift when women start having to workSocial Interactionsto encourage equality "Mr" and "Mrs" start being used for everyone as a term of endearment. it was previously reserved for only the elite but this puts forth the idea that EVERYONE has the chance to be elite.separation of chuch and statebecause royal charters required colonies to pay taxes to the church, the states wanted the church to be separate. this gave people more religious freedom. virginia first to support this idea and new england the last because of their ties to the church.state constitution1776 when we wrote dec. of independence continental congress required all states write an official constitution. they all say the same thing, mostly: bill of rights, annual elections, a powerful legislature, and executives.slaveryfor some states they have to consider the idea of freedom in their constitution. a lot of slaves had tried to gain freedom by fighting for the enemy so now nobody knows what to do with these free slaves. some states write their constitution "gradual emancipation" to slowly get rid of slavery. the first state to pass this is Pennsylvania. every northern state ends up with some sort of emancipation law by 1804. this creates a clear divide between the north and the south.state capitalsvery Rousseau idea. makes sure the capital is close to home and easily accessible by everyone. they move shoreline capitals inland for protection and also so everyone can access them.Articles of Confederationserved as a written document that established the functions of the national government. established a weak central government that prevented individual states from conducting foreign diplomacy. wanted to avoid tyranny, the central gov't didn't get to impose taxes on people, and the confederation had no power to regulate trade.Articles of Confederation pt 2John Dickinson wrote the first draft of the articles. he reasoned state taxes be based on population. the south was against this because they had so many slaves and therefore had a larger population. debate over how states would be represented and Dickinson and Franklin argued over representation. in the end Dickinson's argument won and each state was entitled to a single vote. was agreed that taxes be supported by state and be based on value of land.Financial Crisisfinancial problems plagued wealthy Americans as well as poor farmers. many merchants over extended their credit from importing foreign goods after the war, wealthy land speculators had borrowed too heavily in order to get confiscated loyalist lands., to help debt the continental congress printed more than $240 million in paper money rather than gold. 1781 gov't turned to Robert Harris for advice on how to raise funds. he suggested federal tariffs (import taxes) on certain goods. this plan failed.Northwest Ordinances1784: established 5 new states- Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 1785: spelled out the terms for the sale of the land. the gov't split the northwest into "quilts" selling 640 acres of land for $1 per acre. when they reached the 16th plot the money went to an education system rather than the federal government. the remaining land was auctioned off. 1787: established that it took 60,000 white men to establish a state and they needed to apply for admission by writing a constitution.Diplomatic Problemsthere were issues with the british and the natives as settlers went into the Northwest. the British sold the natives weapons and told them to resist the settlers. American claim to western land rested on 1784 treaty of Fort Stanwix and the 1785 Hopewell Treaties. Spain was upset the settlers were moving west and wouldn't let them use the Mississippi river. Barbary pirates off the coast of africa were also an issue.A Farmer's Revoltthe economic depression weighed heavily on the farmers. Western Massachusetts farmers were the hardest hit by the depression. 1780s the farmers hoped the state gov't would help by passing "stay laws" which would temporarily suspend creditors' rights to foreclose on land.Daniel Shayspoor farmers and a Revolutionary War Veteran stage a revolt. they closed several courts and freed fellow farmers from debtors' prison. Feb 4th, 1787 the revolt was over. it brought antagonisms between farmers and it stirred fears of a slave rebellion. it was also bad for the US Reputationa call for change1786 political leaders questioned survival of the nation. they regretted having created such a strict national government. Washington, Hamilton, and the other men there thought of themselves as nationalists. The men were considered young, they were only in their 30s and were highly intelligent and diplomatic. Benny Franks was the oldest in the room and was the wisdom in the back of the room, he allowed these younger men to discuss and make changes for the future of their country. Hamilton wanted to meet to talk about interstate trade. 11 of 13 states attended Washington's delegates meeting in Virginia to discuss change. Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, Sam Adams, and John Adams did not attend. James Madison wrote everything at the Philly delegates meeting down.Virginia PlanEdmund Randolph (Virginia planter and former governor) and James Madison's plan at revising the government. called for 3 distinct branches in govt: legislature, executive, and judicial. by dividing the power this way, Madison believed it would prevent an individual man or group from having too much power. the plan also gave congress the power to veto laws passed by the state legislature. the greatest controversy of the plan was representation in congress. proposed a two-house legislature with proportional legislature, which large states were in favor of. small states were against it because they felt they'd be helpless in a large-state dominated government.New Jersey Plan3 branches of gov't and gave congress the power to tax and to control national commerce. the plan allowed for equal voice and vote for every state.The Great Compromisealso "CT compromise" suggested by Roger Sherman from Ct. a two house legislature that satisfied both sides. proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives, population based) and equal in the upper house (Senate, 2 reps per state). resolved the first major controversy in the convention but caused the next one: elections. a compromise also settled elections. state legislature pick senators, eligible voters in each state elect members of the house.last stumbling blockrepresentation in the house. couldn't decide which Americans were to be counted to determine a state's population. southern delegates argued that slaves be considered. northern states argued slaves be property. the south didn't want federal government to have anything to do with trade. they were worried about losing the slave trade. during the revolution the south lost a lot of slaves to the British army + slaves getting exported to different places. slaves ran a lot of land and the south needed to have their land and farms to survive because of profit.Three Fifths Compromisesettled the debate. 3/5 of slave population would be included in a state's headcount. a clause was added guaranteeing the federal government could not touch the slave trade for 20 years, but this causes issues later on.drafting an acceptable documentno other issues arose to provoke controversy after the three fifths compromise. the president was named the commander in chief of the armed forces and given primary responsibility for foreign affairs. there were limitations to the executive branch outlined in this document to balance power. congress was given the right to declare war and to raise an army. congress was given veto power. the president was given authority to name federal court judges, but senate has to approve all appointments. president could write and discuss treaties but not finalize them. at the forming of constitution the supreme court had 1/8th of the power it has today.electoral collegemany delegates were opposed to direct popular election of the president. George Mason claimed it would be "unnatural" to let just anybody in the states pick the president cause what if uneducated people vote. electoral college was a clumsy compromise. a group of electors chosen by states to vote for presidential candidates. each state gets number of electors equal to its number of reps in senate and congress. when the college was made they didnt know there would be a chance of majority vote, the founding fathers thought there would be multiple candidates and the house of representatives would have to settle the score every time...but thats now what happened. now the electoral college votes by majority vote of the state cause they have to.Articles of the ConstitutionArticle 1: legislature. congress. most power. Article 2: executive. detailed and limited. doesn't outline the cabinet. Article 3: judicial Article 4: the states and what powers protect them Article 5: the amendment process.the founding fathers knew the time would change and in order for the document to survive it would have to be able to physically change too. Article 6: miscellaneous file Article 7: outlined the ratification proceesratification controversymany revolutionary heroes and political leaders opposed the constitution. Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, George Mason, and George Clinton opposed it. pro-constitution forces abandoned the label "nationalists" and chose to call themselves federalists. who you voted for (federalist or anti federalist) depended on if the constitution would benefit you. smaller states voted in favor because it would protect them. the federalists were more organized, had more resources, and campaigned better than the antifederalists. antifederalists were against the "elitism in the constitution" and their most convincing evidence was the lack of a bill of rights.melanctom smithMassachusetts anti federalists who predicted the proposed new gov't would lead to a gov't ran by wealthy unrepresentative minority. federalists countered by insisting that the constitution could fulfill and preserve republican ideals better than the articles of confederation had done.federalist papersa series of essays produced by Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay encouraging federalist counterclaims. 85 essays, ham wrote 51, mads wrote 29 and jay wrote 5. common theme was the link between american prosperity, liberties, and a strong central govt.the federalist victorypractical politics rather than political theory influenced the outcome of many ratifying conventions. small states approved the constitution (except RI who stayed true to its history of disliking central government) New York finally voted yes because 10 states had already voted yes.true republicin a democracy people vote and majority wins / rules. republic democracy everyone has a vote. a republic is supposed to have definitive clarity on rights and liberties. any government that calls itself a republic has to have a list of rights and protections people have.president george washingtonwashington didn't seek the position as pres but every single state voted for him to be president. john adams voted vice president for regional balance. he led with caution because the nation was so new and he elected 4 cabinet members (cabinet had not been mentioned in the constitution) hamilton as treasurer, knox as war department, edmund randolph as attorney general and jefferson as secretary of state.Judiciary Act of 1789GW had to fill all the positions in the new government. he put in place various courts to hold the states to the constitution. the supreme court was given the power to find if a state was unconstitutional in laws or court. this is what gives the supreme court so much power and it gives citizens the ability to take states to court.bill of rightsthe first 10 amendments. freedom of speech freedom religion assembly press and petition. right to bear arms. quartering act, cant house soldiers. search and seizure. rights of people accused of a crime. criminal trial requirements and the right to a jury trial. civil cases is the reason you can sue people for money. rights of those accused of a crime no cruel and unusual punishment. anything not in the constitution is decided by the states. people have individual choice over who they are.hamiltoneconomy. felt the country should be built on the rich because they were the ones who would invest in the country and back the building of an economic structure. he supported the idea of tariffs, he believed that because the federal government allowed taxing of imports and not exports there should be tariffs on imports to protect industry.jeffersonindustry. wanted to support farming as much as possible because he was a philosopher with ideas built on the enlightenment. he believed in life, liberty, and property. if you worked for someone else, you lost your property and control over the right to produce your own goods. someone else would have a say in your rights.Hamilton's Economic Planhe had 3 things to fix in the economy. foreign debt: all the money the continental congress owed to other countries (mostly France). domestic debt: debt the states owed after the war or debt they had owed as colonies. national debt: debt the government owed its own people through bonds. bonds were a way for soldiers to be "paid" during the war which promised they would be paid once the war was won. Hamilton wanted people to invest in the economy so the national debt needed to be solved. he proposed that the fed govt absorb all state debt because this domestic debt was making it hard for the new states to succeed- really, he just wanted national tax. the issue was a lot of richer states had already paid off their debt and were angry other states were getting let off easy. this caused a divide between the north and the south. as far as bonds, hamilton suggested they be paid in full but a lot of the soldiers had waited so long to be paid they had sold their bonds for a fraction of what they were worth, and the rich people who had bought them could now get paid triple the amount of what they were worth. but he wasnt angry because the rich people would invest in the economy. james madison was upset about this because he wanted to trace the bonds back to the original soldiers so they could finally get paid but again, hamilton liked rich people.capital locationused as a bargaining chip. hamilton convinced congress to accept his proposal by telling them he would find a place for the capital in a southern state, which the jeffersonians were a fan of because they wanted a centralized capital everyone could accessnational bankcauses another issue for the jeffersonians. hamilton proposes a national dollar. claims they need one solid currency, a federal dollar backed by gold, as well as a place to store tax dollars and all the money people could invest. jefferson is against this because he claims hamilton doesn't have the power to create a national bank. it passes because congress sees validity in having a national bank/currency. this would grow industry in the U.Sstrict vs broad/loose interpretationhow to read and interpret the constitution becomes a huge debate. while hamilton proposes a national bank, jefferson argues that nowhere in the constitution does it say we need a national bank/currency. he argues it is not an implied power (art I sec 8)whiskey rebellionPennsylvania farmers rebel against the whiskey tax because they felt it affected them too much. the tax was put in place to increase revenue, but instead people weren't buying whiskey anymore which affected the farmers. washington sent 13,000 troops to squash this rebellion to prove we would not be having another shay's rebellion. he gets a lot of backlash because it was super overkillJay's Treatyjohn jay, the chief supreme court justice, is sent to negotiate a deal with britain because they were angry we weren't addressing the issues with the french revolution. washington felt it was none of america's business to get involved, and also france helped us during our revolution. hamilton didn't want jay to be successful because he wanted us to side with britain and stop the french revolution because of the impact it would have on our trade and economy. other european nations approach washington asking if he wants to side with them and be neutral against the brits. he puts an embargo on to stop trade with britain because it was a non-violent way of handling issues. hamilton wanted to see if jay could still pull off the negotiation so he encouraged washington not to send someone to stop jay. hamilton secretly sends his own messenger to britain and his messenger meets with the brits and tells them not to agree with jay. jay ends up making a treaty that isnt great for the us and the jeffersonians are angry because they think he was siding with the brits. that wasnt his intention but the republicans and farmers are pissed. this treaty ruins jay's career.Pinckney's Treatypinckney is the ambassador for spain and he hears about jay's treaty and uses it to his advantage. he goes to the Spanish govt and tells them this treaty could hurt them, ends up getting them to give the US access to the Mississippi in the treaty he creates with spainBattle of Fallen Timberstreaty of greenville. huge success against the natives in the ohio valley and secures the ohio valley which is a huge step forward in settlementAdam's Presidencythe constitution was still new, the country is still figuring itself out, Adams is elected president. a true patriot. he's kind of middle ground. didn't call himself a federalist but people assumed he was because he worked under washington.Election of 1796washington stepped down and in his farewell address told the country that whoever is in charge should be limited to a 2 year term and that they should be switching up their leader. jefferson also ran for president, thomas pinckney ran as a federalist endorsed by hamilton, and aaron burr also ran for pres as a republican from new york. adams won 71 electoral votes and jefferson won 68, which made him vice president.XYZ Affairbecause of jay's treaty france is unhappy. they "campaigned" for the republicans because they wanted to see jefferson win because jefferson liked france. france threatened that if a jeffersonian didn't make it into office they'd cut all diplimatic ties with the U.S. when adams won presidency, france cut ties. adams didn't want issues with france so he sent three reps to france to negotiate a relationship. adams makes a statement that we will not let france humiliate us and cast us away. called the "XYZ Affair" because in letters sent back and forth adams shorthanded the french representatives they were speaking to by not writing their names, he referred to them as X, Y, or Z. this rude attitude toward france caused a shift in the attitude towards the french at home, adams used this dislike of france to ask congress to increase military spending, and he even asked to create a new armed force- the Navy. this creation of a navy and a fleet of warships looked like war on the water between america and france. july 7th, 1798 all treaties with france end and we established a standing army in the US of 20,000 men to protect america if we were to be attacked. washington comes out of retirement to lead this army.Tally Randthe french born minister who was told by higher ups to stall adams representatives and not let them negotiate. 2 things happened during this stalling: tally rand tried to bribe by saying the americans needed to pay french leaders to talk to them. america refused to fall for the bribe. the 2nd issue is that while they were stalling, france started attacking american ships on the water.Quasi Warcalled this because it is a war that doesn't really officially turn into a war, a war was never declared even though american and french ships were being attacked by both sides.Alien and Sedition Actsjeffersonians referred to as "the french party" to give them a bad name. immigrants were one group of people drawn to jeffersonian ideas because of the philosophy of equal opportunity and emphasis on farming, plus a lot of them didn't like aristocratic ways. adams and the federalists in congress propose acts to prevent immigration and political discourse from immigrants. congress passes 3 acts: naturalization act: raises residency requirements to become a citizen from five years to fourteen. adams did this so immigrants could not vote in the next election and vote for jefferson. alien act: made it so the president could deport any immigrant who spoke bad about the country or politics. alien enemies act: could prison or banish any foreigner who became a citizen. the sedition act was also passed, anyone criticized govt or public officials could be fired or arrested. 15 major newspaper editors put in prison because of this. lot of backlash because it went against the first amendment, which really pissed jefferson off.Virginia and Kentucky Resolutionsjefferson went back to virginia ad james madison went back to kentucky and the two of them tried to figure out how to fix the acts adams passed. they used the 10th amendment which says "any power not given to federal govt is left up to the states to decide" they used this amendment to argue states rights and that these acts are taking away from their civil liberties. how do the states react? madison believed they would have to convince a majority of states that the federal govt had violated the states rights. jefferson disagreed because at any time one state could be targeted and that wouldn't be protecting the entire country. jefferson believed in the right of nullification, that each state has natural rights and can step up and object to what has been done by the federal government. jefferson wanted to move forward with nullification but the Sedition Act made it hard for him to move forward and fix things. his solution would be to run for president again.Quasi War Continuedwhat becomes an issue is the financing of this "war" hamilton finds the money because he wants to fight france. he raises tariffs on imported goods for people who need resources for industry, and he also puts tax on land which pisses off the farmers. the solution to the quasi war comes in the form of this random republican man who takes it upon himself to go to france to try and negotiate. he ends up making headway with france and they ask him to have more reps come over, so he gets adams to send representatives over to discuss. this gains a lot of respect from the republicans. hamilton throws a crybaby tantrum at the end of the quasi war. he convinces federalists that adams sucks. adams fires all of hamilton's friends and takes the fries brothers off death row to get back at hamilton and also to score some brownie points politically.Fries RebellionPennsylvanian farmer rebellion led by the Fries brothers in light of the tax on land. the farmers harass the tax collectors. the rebllion is called this because the farmers harassing the tax collectors are jailed, and these two brothers break them all out of jail because the Fries brothers felt the farmers had a right to protest. adams sends in troops to stop the rebellion, and the fries brothers are arrested, tried in court, found guilty, and put on death row. a lot of people are angry at this, and it wasnt adams best political moment.