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30 terms

Mrs. H Ch 5 Plate Tectonics

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transform boundary
means a plate boundary where 2 plates move past each other in opposite directions
subduction
means the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent boundary
sonar
means a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
seismic waves
means vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
seafloor spreading
means the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
scientific theory
means a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
radiation
means the direct transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
pressure
means the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area
plate tectonics
means the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle
plate
means a section of the lithospere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere carrying pieces of continenal and ocean crust
Pangaea
means the name of the single landmass that broke apart and gave rise to today's contienents
outer core
means a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of earth
mid ocean ridge
means an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
mantle
means the layer of hot solid material between earth's crust and core
lithosphere
means a rigid layer made of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
inner core
means a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of earth
granite
means a light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
fossil
means a trace of an ancient organism that has been presevred in a rock
fault
means a break or crack in earth's lithosphere along which the rocks move
divergent boundary
means a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
density
means the amount of mass of a substance in a given volume; mass per volume
deep ocean trench
means a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
crust
means the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
convergent boundary
means a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
convection current
means the movement of a fluid caused by diferences in temperature, that transfer heat from one part of the fluid to another
convection
means the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a fluid
continental drift
means the hypothesis that the contienents slowly move across earth's surface
conduction
means the direct transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another substance that it is touching
basalt
means a dark dense igneous rock with a fine texture found in oceanic crust
asthenosphere
means the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats