Brain and Behavior Midterm 2
Terms in this set (213)
Movement Depends on What?
What are the three kinds of muscles?
Smooth, Skeletal/Striated, Cardiac
What do each kind of muscle control?
Smooth: organs and digestion
Skeletal/striated: motion in relation to the world
What is the neuro-muscular junction? and what causes it to contract?
a synapse between a motor neuron axon and a muscular fiber.
Release of ACETYLCHOLINE causes the muscle to contract.
Explain Antagonistic contraction
Movement requires alternation contraction of opposite muscles and relies on Acetylcholine to contract.
What is a flexor Muscle?
One that flexes or raises an appendage
What is an Extensor Muscle?
Muscle that extends or straightens an appendage
Explain why Antagonism isn't just for levers.
Standing requires countering effects of antagonistic movements in legs and torso and is controled by reflexes in the spinal cord
Explain Fast- Twitch Skeletal Muscles
Anaerobic and use reactions that do not require oxygen but glucose is broken down and build up lactic acid. Results in fatigue
Explain Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscles.
Aerobic and require oxygen, fibers produce less vigorous contractions, do not fatigue, non-strenuous activities.
What are Proprioceptors?
Detect the position or movement of a part of the body: Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organ
What are Muscle Spindles?
proprioceptors parallel to the muscle that responds to a stretch, Causes a contraction of the muscle.
What is the Golgi Tendon Organ?
proprioceptors that responds to increases in muscle tension; located in tendons at the ends of muscles and act as a break for too much activity.
Explain Reflex Test
Reflexes are involuntary, consistent, and automatic responses
What are Corticospinal Tracts?
What are the two types?
Paths that allow messages from the brain to reach the medulla and spinal cord.
Later Corticospinal tract
Medial Corticospinal tract
Explain how the Lateral Corticospinal Tract functions.
A set of axons from the primary motor cortex, surrounding areas, and red nucleus to the spinal cord
Controls movement in hands and feet
What is the Red Nucleus?
a midbrain area with output mainly to the arm muscles
Explain how the Medial Corticospinal Tract Functions.
A set of axons from many parts of the cortex
controls movement of trunk
Recieves input from the reticular formation, midbrian, and vestublar nucleus
Receives info from both sides
How do we "Decide" to move?
A readiness potential is a particular type of activity in the motorcortex that occurs before any type of voluntary movement
The decision and movement happen at two different times studies show the movement happens before the conscious decision.
Explain General Pattern Generator
Neural mechanisms in the spinal cord or elsewhere that generate rhythmic patters of motor output
EX birds wings flapping
A motor program is either learned or built into the nervous system
EX mouse grooming, yawning
What does the Primary motor cortex do and where is it located?
- "ORDERS" and outcome
Located in the precenteral gyrus
What does the Posterior Parietal Cortex do?
keeps track of the position of the body relative to the word.
Damage to this area causes difficulty coordination visual stimuli with movement.
What does the prefrontal cortex do?
Calculates predictable outcomes of actions and plans movements accordingly
What does the Supplementary Motor Cortex do?
Organizes rapid sequence of movements in a specific order
What does the Premotor Cortex do?
Integrates information about position and posture of the body; organizes the direction of the movement in space.
What does the Cerebellum do?
Patients with damages:
Trouble with rapid movements requiring aim and timing.
Studies suggest it is important for new motor programs that allow execution of sequences as a whole.
Has more neurons than all the other areas combined!
Explain how the Cerebellum works.
Receives input from the spinal cord, each sensory system, cerebral cortex, and sends to cerebral cortex
Where is the Cerebellar Cortex?
on the surface of the Cerebellum
What is the Basal Ganglia?
a group of large subcortical structures in the forebrain
What comprises the Basal Ganglia?
How does the Basal Ganglia work?
Basal Ganglia select a movement to make by ceasing to inhibit it
Explain the order of events for movement.
2.Caudate Nuclues and Putamen tell the Globus to stop working
3. Globus Pallidus
The Globus Pallidus causes you to move because?
Default is movement and the Globus stops working(keeping you still) to allow you to move
Muscles contacts and spasm involuntarily.
Muscles don't relax correctly
Does not impact cognition
What are the treatment options for Dystonia?
Deep Brain Stimulation in Globus
Explain Parkinson's Disease
Muscle tremors, rigidity, slow
depression, memory loss, loss of olfaction and cognition.
Early onset is genetic
after 50 not genetic ish
Explain the role of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease.
gives rise to dopamine pathway for readiness for movement
These cells die in Parkinson's
Also makes dopamine
What are treatments for Parkinson's disease?
L-dopa helps increase dopamine but does not repair or prevent loss of neurons
What is Huntington's Disease?
Neurological disorder characterized by various motor symptoms.
Associated with gradual and extensive brain damage
Discuss the cause and treatment for Huntington's Disease.
Directly related to the number of C-A-G repetitions.
Mutant forms impair neurons in the brain.
Possible future drug therapy.
What are treatments for Parkinson's disease?
L-dopa helps increase dopamine but does not repair or prevent loss of neurons
compressions and expansions of air or water
the number of compressions per second (Hz)
Related to pitch
the energy of the sound
how high the waves are
3 main parts of the ear
Outer, middle, inner
The pinna is in the ___ ear
the structure of flesh and cartilage attached to each side of the head
What is the pinna responsible for?
Altering the reflection of sound waves into the middle ear from the outer ear.
Helps us to locate the source of a sound
The tympanic membrane is in the ___ ear
vibrates at the rate of the sound waves
3 tiny bones found in the middle ear
membrane in the inner ear
Cochlea is found in the ___ ear
Snail shaped structure
Subdivided into 3 fluid filled structures
found in the cochlea, vibrations make it move
Organ of Corti
contains the hair cells that give rise to nerve signals in response to sound vibrations
Is the cochlea tonotopic?
yes, sounds of different frequency are able to be processed
sensory neurons of the ear
Outer Hair Cells
Can pull the tectoral membrane closer to the inner hair cells at specific points aong the basilar membrane so you can focus your hearing on a particular frequency range
Individual neurons fire at the rate of the vibration received
(faster vibrations make the nerve cells fire faster)
Basilar membrane is like piano strings, use resonance
Fast and slow vibrations make different areas of the cochlea vibrate
Both principles of frequency theory and place theory are used.
Low sounds=frequency theory
High sounds-place theory
The quietest sound that you can perceive.
What frequencies is most of our hearing between?
20 and 20000hz
"Amusia" the impaired detection of frequency changes.
Associated with thicker than average auditory cortex in the right hemisphere but fewer connections from auditory cortex to frontal cortex
Genetic predisposition may contribute to it.
Main determinant is extensive musical training.
More common in tonal languages.
Hearing in relation to age
Children hear higher frequencies than adults.
The ability diminishes with age and exposure to loud noises
Conduction Hearing Loss
Damage/impairment to the middle ear or tympanum.
Can be corrected by a hearing aid or surgery.
____ and ____ can also cause conduction loss by filling the middle ear with viscous fluid
Congestion and infection
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve
What is a common side effect of sensorineural hearing loss?
2 categories of hearing impairment
Conductive (middle ear deafness)
Nerve deafness (inner ear deafness)
Occurs if bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea
Causes of conductive deafness
Disease, infections, tumorous bone growth
Can conductive deafness be corrected by surgery or hearing aids?
Describe the mechanical process of cochlear implants
1)Microphone: picks up sound from the environment
2)Speech Processor: selects and arranges sounds picked up by the microphone
3)Transmitter and receiver/stimulator: receive signal from the speech processor and converts them into electric impulses
4)Electrode Array: collects the impulses from the stimulator and sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve
How the implant works
Hearing through a cochlear implant is different from normal hearing.
It allows many people to recognize warning signals, voices, but not music.
Nerve or inner ear deafness results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve.
Can vary in degree.
Can be confined to one part of the cochlea. (People can hear only certain frequencies)
Causes of nerve deafness
Can be inherited or caused by prenatal problems or early childhood disorders
How is information mostly processed?
(Active when you are distinguishing or identifying sounds)
Provides a tonotopic map in which cells in the primary auditory cortex are more responsive to preferred tones.
Some cells respond better to ___ sounds than pure tones
The Three Cues
Sound shadow, time of arrival, phase difference
Processing complex sounds
Many association areas integrate sound and other sensory and cognitive info
What area do we use to understand language?
Humans have ___ language.
Productive. Meaning we can use language to create new representations and meanings.
Language is a ___ function.
Lateralized. It is processed on the left side of the brain (in most people)
Understanding spoken language requires activation of the ___ cortex and ___ area.
Auditory cortex, Wernicke's area.
1)Ask a question
2)Activity in auditory cortex
3)Wernicke's Area makes sense of the words
4)Broca's Area formulates articulation
5)Motor cortex to speak the answer
Verbs are impaired by damage to the left ___ cortex
Does cursing have a different pathway than "normal" speech?
Yes, emotional centers such as the amygdala are activated. Damage to the language system often leaves cursing intact.
The inability to understand speech
the inability to produce speech
the inability to integrate speech information
Contributes to our sense of balance and head orientation. Often called equilibrium.
Gives us a sense of which way is up and how the head is moving.
Where are the vestibular organs located?
Just above the cochlea
The vestibular system contains three ____ canals and two ___ organs
measure the acceleration of the head
measure what direction the head is tilted.
contain small stone-like crystals otoliths
What are the 2 otolith organs called?
utricle and saccule
When your vestibular system and your eyes are telling you different things about the world
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
a small piece of bone‐like calcium calcium breaks free
and floats within the tube of the inner ear.
What is the relationship between frequency and pitch? Or amplitude and volume?
Frequency‐ the number of compressions/sec
Higher frequency=higher pitch
Lower frequency=lower pitch
Amplitude - the energy of the sound, how
high the waves are
Higher amplitude=higher volume
Lower amplitude=lower volume
How does the ear work?
Outer ear, middle ear, inner ear
What is the role of the inner hair cell? How about the outer hair cells?
Inner=sensory neurons of the ear. Sends an action potential to the brain. Law of specific nerve energies.
Outer=pull the tectoral membrane closer to the inner hair cells at specific points along the basilar membrane so you can focus your hearing on a particular frequency range
Where does conscious awareness of sound occur?
What is the first area that the auditory nerve projects to?
How does the brain determine the direction of a sound? What is a delay circuit?
Ahead, beside, behind you. Sound shadow, time of arrival, phase difference.
What is the location of sound processing in the midbrain? Where is sound processed in
What does the MGN project to?
What is a tonotopic map? Which brain areas have one?
Which hemisphere generally processes language?
What brain area is responsible for understanding language? What area is responsible
for forming speech? How are they connected?
Understanding language=Wernicke's area
Forming speech=Broca's area
Having to answer a question
What are aphasias? How do fluent and nonfluent aphasias differ?
Fluent=the inability to understand speech
Nonfluent=the inability to produce speech
How does the vestibular system sense movement?
3 semicircular canals(measure acceleration of the head) and 2 otolith organs(measure what direction the head is tilted)
Primary Germ Layers
Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
Most internal germ layer, forms the lining of the gut and other internal organs
Middle germ layer, forms muscle, the skeletal system, and the circulatory system
Outer germ layer
Pinches off in a patch of tissue during development, becomes a tube that will eventually become the brain
Human central nervous system begins to form when the embryo is approx _____
2 weeks old
The fluid-filled cavity becomes the central canal and the four ____ of the brain
Fluid found in the spinal cord and the four ventricles of the brain
"Cordin" and "Noggin"
Two of the main neural inducers that trigger development
5 Stages of Development
proliferation, migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis
Refers to the production of new cells/neurons in the brain primarily occuring early in life
Refers to the movement of newly formed neurons and glia to their eventual locations
Immunoglobins and chemokines
Migration stage, chemical paths in the brain that cells follow to migrate throughout the brain
Refers to the forming of the axon and dendrite that gives the neuron its distinctive shape
Refers to the process by which glia produce the fatty sheath that covers the axons of some neurons
What speeds up the transmissions of neural impulses?
Final stage of neural development, refers to the formation of the synapses between neurons
This stage slows significantly later in the lifetime
New neurons are formed in early development
Axons follow a chemical trail to reach their appropriate target
Chemicals that promote survival of axons
strengthen connection with some cells and eliminate connections with others
Formation or elimination of connections depends upon input form incoming of ___
If a neuron does not get the signal to stay it dies through a process called apoptosis
4 Vulnerabilities of the Developing Brain
Mutation, Malnutrition, Infection, Toxins
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Alcohol suppresses glutamate and enhances GABA, developing neurons receive less signal than normal and are pruned by apoptosis
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome effects
Hyperactivity, impulsiveness, mental disability, motor problems. heart defects, facial abnormalities
Differentiation in Cortex
Neurons in different parts of the brain differ from one another in their shape and chemical components
Can immature neurons transplanted to a developing part of the cortex develop the properties of the new location?
The gain and loss of spines indicates new connections, which relates to learning and enrichment
Is measurable expansion of neurons shown in humans as a function of physical activity?
Focal Hand Dystonia
This condition is a result of extensive reorganization of the sensory thalamus and cortex so that touch responses to one finger overlap those of another
Tend to be more impulsive than adults
Show stronger reward responses
Show weaker prefrontal cortex responses
Going through puberty
Neurons alter synapses slower in old age
Brain structures begin to lose volume
ability of the brain to change
Plasticity after damage
Survivors of brain damage show subtle to significant behavioral recovery
Possible causes of brain damage
Spinal cord damage, tumors, infections, exposure to toxic substances, degenerative diseases, a stroke or cerebrovascular accident, closed head injuries
Artificial limbs, brain controlled prosthetics are within reach
Most common type of stroke, resulting from a blood clot or obstruction of an artery
Neurons lose their oxygen and glucose supply
Less frequent type of stroke resulting from a ruptured artery
Neurons are flooded with excess blood, calcium, oxygen, and other chemicals
the accumulation of fluid in the brain resulting in increased pressure on the brain and increasing the probability of further strokes
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) breaks up blood clots
Cooling the brain
Decreased activity of surviving neurons after damage to other neurons
True or false; Destroyed cell bodies cannot be replaced, but damaged axons do grow back under certain circumstances
In response to lost synapses;
Postsynaptic cells deprived of synaptic inputs develop increased sensitivity to the neurotransmitter to compensate for decreased input
The heightened sensitivity to a neurotransmitter after the destruction of an incoming axon
Can cause consequences such as chronic pain
Cells that have lost their source of innervation release neurotrophins that induce axons to form collateral sprouts
New branches formed by non-damaged axons that attach to vacant receptors
Refers to the continuation of sensation of an amputated body part
Explain why vision is in your brain
Receptors transduce or convert energy into electrochemical patters so that the brain can perceive sight
What is the Law of specific nerve energies?
Activity by a particular nerve always conveys the same type of information to the brain; for example rubbing your eyes is pressure but is perceived as light
Explain how the eye connects to the brain.
Light enters through the pupil and is focused by then lens and cornea onto the retina at the back of the eye where visual receptors are located
Explain how light is contalateral
the light form the left side of the world strikes the right side of the retina and vice versa
Explain what happens after light hits the visual receptors in the retina.
Light comes in passes Ganglia and bipolar cells and hits the Rods and Cones and then the signals go through the Ganglia and Bipolar cells to the brain.
What is the Blind Spot?
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye; it consist of banded together axons of ganglion cells
Explain the Function of Rods
Rods are round, abundant in the peripheral vision, contain Rodopsin which is only useful in the dark, each receptor sahres a line to the brain with 10-100 0ther rods
Explain the function of Cones
Cones are most abundant in the fovea, uses lodopsin which is essential for color vision and in bright light, there is more rods than cones but cones have individual connections to the brain.
Explain Photopigments as signals
Chemical contained by both rods and cones (odopsins) that release energy when struck by light. Then Light energy converts 11-cis--retinal into all-trans-retinal and the light is absorbed as energy kick-starting a second messenger system in the cell
Explain when Receptor cells are most active and why.
Most active in the dark; Light closes the sodium channels causing things to fire. In the dark the receptors are inhibiting bipolar cells with glutamate and when the light closes the sodium channels less glutamate is released stopping the inhibition.
Describe the function of the Fovea
Has many cones, allows for acute detailed vision. Dominates Vision. 70% comes from the fovea
Explain how Peripheral Vision
Dominated by Rods, Rods converge into ganglion and bipolar cells. allows for perception of fainter light( summation)
Discuss Plasticity in Vision
The number of axons in the optic nerve ranges from one to three million
Explain Trichromatic theory of Color
3 cones (short/blue, medium/green, long/red). color comes from the ration of activity across the three cones. Intensity changes but not color. The problem is that negative color images don't match up.
Explain the Opponent Process Theory of Color
3 types of cones and the brain has a mechanism that perceives color on a continuum. Maybe bipolar cells are exited by one wavelength and inhibited by another. Probably more complicated.
Explain the Retinex Theory of Color Vision
Suggests that the cortex compares info from various parts of the retina to determine brightness and color
Explain Lateral Inhibition
Sharpens contrast to emphasize boarders, Receptors send messages to exicte bipolar cells and inhibit their closes neighbors
Explain how Nerves travel back into processing areas.
Most Ganglion cell axons go to the lateral geniculate nucleus (in the thalmus) a smaller amount to the superior colliculus (midbrain), and fewer to other areas
Discuss Vision in the Superior Colliculus
Responsible for visual reflexes, is what allows us to seamlessly track objects using head and eye movements
Discuss Vision in the Thalamus
The lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus acts as a relay center to the visual cortex. Processed Contra laterally
Explain the function of the Primary Visual Cortex
Responsible for primary visual processing and if damaged it can cause Cortical Blindness and Blind-sight
Explain How receptive fields work
Alerts the brain that the saw light but can't piece together the image as a whole
Explain how Visual Processing Works
The cells responding to a particular slant pattern are arranged in the ocular dominance columns
Explain how simple and complex cells work together to create your perception
each cell 'learns something new' and 80 brain regions contribute to vision in the form of shape color location and movement
What are the two Vision Pathways
The Ventral stream identifies and recognizes objects
The Dorsal Stream tells us where objects are and how they are moving
Explain how the Dorsal Stream Functions
The dorsal stream goes to the parietal lobe and receives mostly non-color signals, this is how we locate objects and see motion
Explain how the parietal lobe works
Each area receives information from a different part of the body,
There are 4 bands of cells 2 light touch 1 for deep pressure and 1 for both
Explain how the Ventral Stream Works
Goes into the Temporal lobe
Receives mostly color signals
this is how we recognize objects
Associated with language
Explain the Developmental Problem Strabismus
The eyes do not point in the same direction
usually develops in child hood
also known as lazy eye
Stereoscpoic depth perception is impaired
Two eyes carrying unrelated messages , the cortical cell strengthens in one and doesnt use the other
Blurring of vision for lines in one direction caused by an asymmetric curvature if the eyes
Explain Perception of Color Constancy
Area V4 of the visual cortex compares objects to their surrounding environment and adjusts for how color is perceived and brightness
Explain Perception of Motion
Motion is perceived utilizing areas in all four lobes of the cerebral cortex but though of as part of V5
What are Saccades?
a decrease in the activity of the visual cortex activity during quick eye movements to prevent blurring
What is Motion Blindness?
inability to determine direction speed and movement of objects
Likely caused by damage to Middle Temporal Cortex.
Explain the Perception of Distance
Relies on retinal disparity or discrepancy between what the left and right eye sees and they ability of cortical neurons to adjust their connections to detect retinal disparity shaped through experience.
Explain what Stereoscopic Depth Perception?
a method of perceive the distance in which the brain compares slightly different input from the two eyes
Explain how Optical Illusions work.
Dorsal "where pathway" detects motion when there is none
Line detector thinks its curved when its not
Basically the cortex registers something that isn't there
What type of cells project down the optic nerve?
Ganglion cells band together and trvel down the optic nerve
Explain Hubel and Wiesel's Experiments
Showed that simple cells in V1 responded to lines of a certain angle while complex cells in V1 and V2 only respond if the lines are moving in a certain direction
What happens at the optic Chiasm?
The place where the two optic nerves leaving the eye meet and reorganize
Where does an object in your left field of vision project to?
right Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
What are ocular dominance columns?
they arrange slant patterns of light
What are orientation columns?
The cells responding to a particular slant pattern are arranged in the ocular dominance columns
Where are body motion and vision integrated?
The Dorsal Stream in the Parietal lobe
Where are vision and language integrated?
The Ventral Stream in the Temporal Lobe
What is the McGurk effect?
When your vision tricks your brain into hearing something different "BA" vs. "VA"
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