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For all real a, b

a + b = b + a


For all real a, b, c

a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c

Identity Addition

the sum of any number and zero is the original number

Additive Inverse

For every real number a there exist a real number, denoted (-a), such that

a + (-a) = 0

Distributive Law

For all real a, b, c

a(b + c) = ab + ac, and (a + b)c = ac + bc


Changing the order of the factors does not change the product; for example 10 x 9 = 9 x 10; a b = b a

Associative Multiplication

changing the grouping of factors will not change the product, (ab)c = a(bc)



Inverse Multiplication

states that a number multiplied by its reciprocal is equal to one

Identity Multiplication

the product of any number times 1 is that number


if a=b then b=a


If a=b and b=c then a=c

Multiplication by Zero

a x 0 = 0; also, if a x b = 0, then at least one of a or b must equal 0

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