Adv. Chemistry - Nuclear Energy Unit Review
Terms in this set (95)
The length of time it takes for one-half the radioactive elements in a sample to decay and become non-radioactive or disintegrate.
A reaction where the products or by-products of the reaction cause additional reactions.
The process by which multiple atomic particles join together to form a heavier nucleus under great heat and pressure, releasing lots of energy.
The process of splitting the nucleus of a large, unstable atom into smaller parts releasing a lot of energy in a chain reaction.
intercontinental ballistic missile
Discovered nuclear fission and is thought of as the "father of nuclear chemistry."
How you make electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Process by with control rods are pulled out of the reactor core and are bombarded with neutrons to start a controlled nuclear reaction releasing heat that boils water into steam. The steam turns a turbine, which turns a generator.
____ + beta minus ----> 100/45Rh
alpha particles, beta particles , gamma rays
3 types of radioactive particles.
What do we call the current method of placing spent nuclear waste in pools of water onsite or in concrete casks onsite.
high level, low level, and transuranic waste
3 categories of nuclear wastes
Acronym for if you bomb me, I will bomb you in mutually assured destruction.
Particle used to split the atom in nuclear fission?
First city bombed by a nuclear bomb in WWII.
Name of United States plane that carried the first bomb.
Name of first nuclear bomb blasted on July 16th, 1945.
Name of bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
2nd and last city bombed by the United State in WWII?
Name of plane that dropped bomb on Nagasaki, Japan.
Name of nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan
Devices built to capture excess neutrons in a controlled nuclear reaction and keep it from exploding.
4/2He (alpha emission)
238/92U -----> _____ + 234/90Th
Policy for warding off potential nuclear attacks with the threat of nuclear retaliation is called this.
Scenario in which the entire human race is brought to extinction through nuclear warfare?
Nuclear power plant problems.
What is being described? A possible radiation release by accident, disposal of waste problem, expensive to build and maintain, and no one wants it in their neighborhood.
% of electricity produced by nuclear power in the United States.
The use of radiation on food to rid it of microscopic bacterial and parasites.
0/+1 (beta plus or positron emission)
210/85Bi -----> 210/84Po + _________.
Who am I? Discovered radium and polonium. First female to win Nobel prize in chemistry and physics. First female professor. Died of leukemia related to her work with radiation. her books are still radioactive today.
This man wrote a letter to President Roosevelt, urging him to develop the nuclear bomb before Germany did?
In a nuclear blast, you first see a flash, then see the blast, then a ___________ occurs and finally blast wind knocks down most everything in its path.
reactor vessel or reactor core
What is the name of the device that holds the fuel/uranium pellets and carbon control rods in controlled nuclear reactions that take place in nuclear power plants.
Dangerous radioactive materials that fall slowly to the Earth after the explosion of a nuclear bomb which can contaminate an area and get passed down the food chain to cause death.
Type of reaction in a nuclear power plant.
Type of reaction that produces energy from the sun and all stars.
No atmospheric pollution and less fuel to haul.
Main advantages of nuclear power to other power sources in power plants that generate electricity.
Natural sources such as cosmic rays from space.
82% of the population's exposure to radiation comes from what source?
Device used to detect and measure radiation?
Site in Russia of the worst nuclear meltdown ever which scattered tons of radioactive dust into the atmosphere and killed people and cause the area to be evacuated and is still radioactive today.
Storage of nuclear waste.
The biggest expense in the nuclear industry?
Harry S. Truman
President of the United States that ordered the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan in 1945 because he felt it would save millions of lives from an eventual invasion of Japan in WWII.
The smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Type of fission bomb assembly method utilized by the nuclear bomb, "Fat Man," dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
Man who led the scientific research project called, "The Manhatten Project."
If a fossil is over _______ years old, radioctive carbon dating is ineffective.l
The area of most nuclear power plants.
Because the half-lives are so darn long, in the order of thousands of years, that no one can guarantee that it will never harm the environment it is placed it.
Why are most storage methods of nuclear waste considered "temporary?"
What do we call the conversion of one element or isotope into another called?
The WWII allied document requesting the immediate surrender of Japan warning them that we would drop a bomb on them, which was ignored, so we bombed Japan into surrender.
231/90Th ------> 4/2He + __________
This mineral whose radioactivity was superior to uranium, which Marie Curie used to isolate the presence of a tiny amount of radium from tons of this mineral.
Which uranium isotope is used in making bombs and nuclear fuel and is only a small percentage of natural uranium found in nature?
Electromagnets inside the machine repel the plasma and secure it from touching the exterior walls.
Why does the interior of the fusion reactor, Tokomak, not melt from the extreme heat produced?
How long in meters is a typical nuclear fuel rod?
Form of matter that consist of positively-charge particles completely independent of each other.
E = mc(squared)
Einstein's equation relating to mass being converted into lots of energy.
10,000,000 degrees celsius
How hot it must be for nuclear fusion to occur.
strong nuclear force
Force that holds the protons together in the nucleus.
The energy used in radiation therapy.
The use of certain type of energy to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
When radiation is only aimed at a certain part of the body.
When a source of radiation is placed inside the body.
The place on the body receiving radiation.
A form of radiation in which a solid radiation source is placed in the body near the cancer cells.
external beam radiation
A machine that aims beams of radiation at cancer to kill the cancerous cells.
A place in Nevada where the United States built a permanent nuclear storage facility, but it currently mothballed by red-tape.
Radiation destroys cancer cells by damaging their genetic material so they cannot grow and divide.
How does radiation treatments kill cancer cells?
Measuring the amount of radioactive carbon compared to the non-radioactive nitrogen in which it mutates to determine the age of materials.
Energy given off in the form of waves or small particles of matter.
The process engineers use to detect defects in many types of metals and machines with radiation.
Lise Meitner, Fritz Strassman
Two workers who assisted Otto Hahn with the discovery of fission.
mass number and electric charge
What are the 2 quantities conserved in a nuclear change?
Storage/Disposal of nuclear waste.
Space, polar ice caps, and sea-bed burial were considered by scientist for what?
July 16th, 1945
Date that trinity was blasted in White Sands missile range in New Mexico.
When a cell is damaged and repaired, but operates abnormally, what does this cause?
Symptoms of radiation poisoning.
What are these symptoms of? Cataracts, burns, sterility, nausea, leukemia symtoms, central nervous system damage and even death.
False. Some are a few seconds up to billions of years.
True or False? The half-life is the same for all radioactive elements.
This radioisotope is used to detect thyroid cancer.
What is it called on a nuclear power plant where the plant is encased with very thick layers of concrete, lead, and clay.
Countries currently trying to develop nuclear weapons.
What do all these countries have in common? North Korea, Israel, India, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Iran, Algeria, and Pakistan?
3 Mile Island
Event in the United States that occurred on March 28th, 1979 and was marked as a bad day in the nuclear power industry as radiation was released into the atmosphere.
Calder Hall, England
Location of the 1st ever nuclear power plant that opened in 1956.
The transmutation below is called what type?
238/92U ---> 234/90Th + 4/2He
The transmutation below is called what type?
210/83Bi ---> 210/84Po + 0/-1e
A type of radiation that can pass through the skin causing shadows of denser objects such as bones detected on photographic film.
A type of radiation used to purify lab safety goggles and to purify water.
An isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay.
Name of the scientist that discovered radiation in uranium salts that exposed film when left in a desk drawer away from sunlight.
Nuclear reactions are often called _________________ reactions because of the temperatures required to initiate them can be more than 1,000,000 degrees Celsius.
radio and microwaves
Forms of radiation with the longest waves.
x-rays and gamma rays
Forms of radiation with the shortest waves.
infrared, visible light and ultraviolet
Middle-sized radiation waves.
Radiation comes from cosmic, _______________, and internal sources.
_________ radiation is a dose that damages a greater amount of cells over a short period of time.
True.....but I didn't put any of these on this review sheet.
True or False? There will be all sorts of 1/2 life problems that involve math steps and logarithms and a half-life reference sheet.