practical research 2

what is quantitative research?
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Terms in this set (65)
1. Quantitative research can be replicated or repeated.
2. Findings are generalizable to the population.
3. Conclusive establishment of cause and effect
4. Numerical and quantifiable data can be used to predict outcomes
5. Fast and easy data analysis using statistical software.
6. Fast and easy data gathering
7. Very objective
8. Validity and reliability can be established
Weaknesses of Quantitative Research1. It lacks the necessary data to explore a problem or concept in depth. 2. It does not provide a comprehensive explanation of human experiences. 3. Some information cannot be described by numerical data such as feelings, and beliefs. 4. The research design is rigid and not very flexible. 5. The participants are limited to choose only from the given responses. 6. The respondents may tend to provide inaccurate responses. 7. A Large sample size makes data collection more costly.Kinds of Quantitative Researchdescriptive, correlational, ex post facto, quasi-experimental, and experimentalDescriptive designis used to describe a particular phenomenon by observing it as it occurs in nature. There is no experimental manipulation and the researcher does not start with a hypothesis. The goal of descriptive research is only to describe the person or object of the study.correlational designidentifies the relationship between variables. Data is collected by observation since it does not consider the cause and effectEx post facto designis used to investigate a possible relationship between previous events and present conditions. The term "Ex post facto", means after the fact, looks at the possible causes of an already occurring phenomenon. Just like the first two, there is no experimental manipulation in this design.quasi-experimental designis used to establish the cause and effect relationship of variables. Although it resembles the experimental design, the quasi-experimental has lesser validity due to the absence of random selection and assignment of subjects. Here, the independent variable is identified but not manipulated. The researcher does not modify pre-existing groups of subjects. The group exposed to treatment (experimental) is compared to the group unexposed to treatment (control)Experimental designlike quasi- experimental is used to establish the cause and effect relationship of two or more variables. This design provides a more conclusive result because it uses random assignment of subjects and experimental manipulationsVariableis anything that has a quantity or quality that variesQuantitative Variablesalso called numerical variables are the type of variables used in quantitative research because they are numeric and can be measured. Under this category are discrete and continuous variables.are countable whole numbers. It does not take negative values or values between fixed points.Discrete variablestake fractional (non-whole number) values that can either be a positive or a negative.Continuous variablesis a quantitative variable where the interval or differences between consecutive values are equal and meaningful but the numbers are arbitraryIntervaltype of data is similar to interval, the only difference is the presence of a true zero value. The zero point in this scale indicates the absence of the quantity being measured.RatioI. also referred to as Categorical Variables are not expressed in numbers but are descriptions or categories. It can be further divided into nominal, ordinal or dichotomous.Qualitative Variablesa. consists of only two distinct categories or values. For example, a response to a question either be a yes or no.Dichotomoussimply defines groups of subjects. Here you may have more than 2 categories of equivalent magnitude.Nominal variablefrom the name itself denotes that a variable is ranked in a certain order. This variable can have a qualitative or quantitative attribute.Ordinal variableis a scientific body of knowledge that deals with - collection of data - organization or presentation of data - analysis and interpretation of dataSTATISTICSTypes of statisticsDescriptive Statistics, Inferential Statisticscomposed of methods concerned with collecting describing, and analyzing a set of data without drawing conclusion or inferences about a large groupDescriptive Statisticscomposed of methods concerned with the analysis of a subject of data leading to predictions or inferences about the entire set of dataInferential Statistics-refers to a large collection of objects, places, or thing - parameter is any numerical value which describes a populationPopulation- Is a small portion of a population. A representative of the population in the research study. -statistic is any numerical value which describes a sampleSample-is a characteristics or property of a population or sample which makes the members similar to each other.Constant- is a characteristic or property of a population or sample which makes the members different to each other.Variableare facts, or set of information gathered or under studyDataare numerical in nature and therefore meaningful arithmetic can be done Ex. Age, height, weightQualitative Data- are attributes which cannot be subjected to meaningful arithmetic Ex. Gender, nationalityQuantitative DataTypes of Quantitative DataDiscrete data- assume exact values only and can be obtained by counting Continuous data- assume infinite values within a specified interval and can be obtained by measuringLevels of Measurementnominal, ordinal, interval, ratioLevels of Measurement(qualitative)• Nominal —classifies data into names, labels or categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed. Example— courses offered in each of the different colleges. • Ordinal —classifies data into categories that can be ordered or ranked, but precise differences between the ranks do not exist. Example—letter grades of A, B, C, D, and F.Levels of Measurement(quantitative)• Interval — precise differences between units of measure exist, but there is no meaningful zero. If a zero exists, it is an an arbitrary point. Example—IQ scores, it makes sense to talk about someone having an IQ 20 points higher than another person, but an IQ of zero has no meaning. • Ratio —has all the characteristics of the interval level, but a true zero exists. Also, true ratios exist when the same variable is measured on two different members of the population. Example—weight of an individual. It makes sense to say that a 150 lb adult weighs twice as much as a 75 lb. child.Nominal and ordinal are qualitative(categorical) levels of measurement Interval and ratio are quantitative levels of measurement.An area of focus that falls within the perimeter of a niche area or research environment, which directly relates to a particular discipline (field of study).Research TopicResearch ProblemA research problem is a definite or clear expression [statement] about: • an area of concern • a condition to be improved upon • a difficulty to be eliminated, or • a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or within existing practice that points to a need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.Characteristics of a Good Research Title1. Not too long that the title contains unnecessary, confusing, redundant and implicit words and gives too much information. 2. Not too short that the title lacks some important concepts of the purpose of your study. 3. Does not use words having too broad meaning 4. No abbreviations and numerical values unless universal 5. If there is a catchphrase, signaled by a colon (:), it should be related to the context of the study. 6. Mention all the major variables of your study.Research Process/ Method-It can be a verb that shows action or process you will do or you have done in your stud like assessing, creating, improving, comparing, and the likes. -It can be a noun that gives the impression of what will take place in your research studies like assessment, creation, improvement, comparison, and the likes. It answers the question: What are you going to do in your study? What was done in your study?Topic as Point of InquiryMention what concept are you processing, measuring, creating, improving, or comparing. This serves as the direct object of your process or method in item number 1 (Research Process / Method). It answers the question: "What are you assessing, creating, improving, or comparing etc.?"Participants/ Respondents/ SubjectsMention who are your research participants. You must mention them without being too specific that the readers can easily pinpoint your research participants, nor too broad that your research will seem impossible to be done. It answers the question: "Whom" or "Whose"Intervention (if applicable)There are times that research study has intervention programs or materials. In case your research study has intervention; you should be able to mention it in your research title. It answers the question: "How or are you going to create, improve, or change a situation?" or "What are you going to do to create, improve, or change a situation?"Research Output (if applicable)Output pertains to the materials or products of any kind developed through or because of your research study which could be used by others. It further gives significance to the study. You may indicate the output of your study after a colon (:) as a signal. It answers the following: "What was produced or could be created by/through your study?"Catchphrase (if desired)To get the reader's attention and get the mood of your readers in accordance with the content of your study. But, do not to distract the readers by having a ton of humorous catchphrases. You may apply a catchphrase before a colon it answers the following: "What common utterance is related to your study?"The background of the study is the part of your paper where you inform the reader of the context of the study. When we say context, it means the situation or circumstances within which your research topic was conceptualized. Ideally, this part is written when you have already conducted a literature review and has a good perception of the topic so you can articulate the importance and validity of the research problem.Background of the StudyA research gap is an under or unexplored area of a topic that requires further exploration. The gap can be in a form of other variables, conditions, population, methodology, or test subject. To identify research gaps, an exhaustive literature review regarding the topic is required.research gapResearch Problem and Research QuestionsThe research questions help to clarify and specify the research problem. Research questions are also considered as sub-problems of your research problem. These questions are informative in nature. It specifies the method of collecting and analyzing data and the type of data to be collected since you are exploring a quantitative research problem.Characteristics of Good Research Questionsfeasible, clear, significant, ethicalConsider the amount of time, energy, money, respondents, and even your current situation as a student-researcher.FeasibleThe clarity of how the questions stated lead to agreement of meaning of the readers of your study. Since your research questions are also considered as the main focus in the gathering and analyzing the data, it is therefore very important that these are stated clearly.ClearAsk if your research questions are relevant or important to ask. WillSignificantAlways consider the welfare of people, animals or whoever is involved in your study. Look into ways of answering the research questions without inflicting physical and psychological harm to persons involved.EthicalIn stating quantitative research questions, you should also consider the design of your quantitative research.Research Questions for Different Research Designsaim to determine the relationships among two or more variables in your research problem.Research Questions for Correlational Researchattempt to identify the causes of the phenomenon in the context of your research problem.Research Questions for Ex Post Facto ResearchResearch Questions for Experimental and Quasi-experimental Research suggests that answers to these questions are brought about by manipulation or control of a certain variable during the conduct of the study. These questions provide explanation to the causal relationship of variables.There are two problems to be stated: (1) the major (general or main) problem, and (2) the minor (specific) problems or sub-problems. The general problem consists of the general purpose of the study which is usually patterned from the research title. The general problem is then broken down to specific problems or sub-problems in order to be researchable units. Usually, the general problem starts with the phrase: "This study (or research) aims to...(make congruent with title). While the sub-problems start with: "Specifically, this research (or study) seeks to answer the following questions:"Statement of the Problem