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The 40-ft-long A-36 steel rails on a train track are laid with a small gap between them to allow for thermal expansion. Determine the required gap δ so that the rails just touch one another when the temperature is increased from T₁ = -20°F to T₂ = 90°F. Using this gap, what would be the axial force in the rails if the temperature rises to T₃ = 110°F? The cross-sectional area of each rail is 5.10 in².
Match each of the following statements related to membrane transport processes to the appropriate term: passive transport, facilitated transport, active transport. More than one term may apply in a given situation.
a. Movement across the membrane is against the concentration gradient.
b. Proteins serve as “gates.”
c. Expenditure of cellular energy is required.
d. Movement across the membrane is from a high to a low concentration.