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AP Physics 1 exam knowledge
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Gravity
Terms in this set (45)
Vector
Quantity that involves both magnitude and direction
Scalar
A quantity that involves magnitude
Examples of Vectors
Displacement(change in position, path doesn't matter)
Velocity(displacement/time)
Acceleration(can be change in magnitude or direction)
_________
_________
Examples of Scalars
Speed( total distance/time)
Distance
Mass
Work
_________
Acceleration equation
Δv/Δt
Kinematic equations
Δx=.5(Vi+Vf)t
Vf=Vi+at
x= xi+Vit+.5a(t^2)
Vf^2=Vi^2+2aΔx
An equation for an object dropped off a cliff and is in free fall
Y=.5at^2
When looking at vectors/projectile motion, THINK
WE MUST BREAK
Newton's first law(Law of inertia)
An object will continue in motion unless compelled to change by a force impressed upon it.
Inertia
Natural resistance to change in state of motion.
Newton's second law
Fnet=ma
"The quantitative measure of something's inertia"
Mass
Newton's third law
To every action, there is an equal, but opposite, reaction.
Weight
Fw=mg
normal force
perpendicular to the surface
Ftension
MassxAccel
Pulling with tension to move at constant velocity
Ft=Fw
Force of Friction
μ x Fn
Static friction
Force the tries to cancel out inital push
Kinetic friction
occurs when there is relative motion/sliding
Ramps triangle
Hypotenuse is weight and θ is top corner not bottom
Work
F x d, positive, negative, zero
F has to be parallel to d.
KE
.5 m v^2
Work energy theorem
Wtotal= ΔKE
GPE
mgh
Conservation of energy
KEi+GPEi=KEf+GPEf
Conservation of energy with Non Conservative forces
KEi+GPEi+Wother=KEf+GPEf
Momentum
p=mv
Impulse
J=Δp
J=FΔt
Impulse momentum theorem
Pfinal=Pinitial +J
Conservation of linear momentum
The total linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant.
total P initial=total P final
Elastic collision
Objects bounce perfectly off one another in opposite directions.
Momentum conserved
KE conserved.
Inelastic collision
The objects travel in the same direction after the collision.
Momentum conserved
KE lost
Perfectly Inelastic collision
The objects stick together and travel in the same direction.
Momentum conserved
KE lost
Uniform circular motion
Object's speed around its path is constant. (not velocity)
Centripetal acceleration
Ac= (v^2)/r
Centripetal force
Fc=m x Ac = m x (v^2/r)
Strength of gravitational force
Fg= Gm1m2/r^2
r=center to center
Hooke's law
F=-kx
SPE=
SPE= .5 k x^2
x=distance from equilibrium
Period
#seconds/ 1 cycle (s)
Frequency
#cycles/1 second (Hz)
Spring/ Block vertically
F=kx
mg=kd
d=mg/k
Simple pendulum
F(restoring from gravity)=mgsinθ
Equilibrium in middle
Triangle same as inclined plane
Tension pendulum
2π√l/g
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