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32 terms

AP Human Geography Ch. 2

terms for ch 2 (any davis people at north springs can use this for the quiz tomorrow)
STUDY
PLAY
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
artifact
a man-made object taken as a whole
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
cultural barrier
Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture.
cultural convergence
the contact and interaction of one culture with another
cultural divergence
the restriction of a culture from outside cultural influences
cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
cultural identity
Ones belief in belonging to a group or certain cultural aspect
cultural integration
The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
culture complex
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
culture hearth
a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
culture region
an area in which people have many shared culture traits (formal, vernacular, functional)
culture system
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group's collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
culture trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
diffusion
the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
diffusion barrier
stops cultural exchange
diffusion types
EXPANSION- idea or innovation
spreads outward from the hearth
HIERARCHIAL- spreads to most linked people or places first.
-CONTAGIOUS- spreads adjacently
-STIMULUS- idea promotes a local experiment or change in the way people do things.
RELOCATION- movement of individuals who
carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant location.
environmental determinism
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
hunter-gather
a person who meets needs by hunting animals and gathering plants
independent invention
the term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
innovation
the act of starting something for the first time
mentifact
The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs
multilinear evolution
used to explain common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
sequent occupance
the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
sociofact
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unit a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.
syncretism
the fusion of originally different inflected forms (resulting in a reduction in the use of inflections)
technological subsystem
The complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out purposeful and productive tasks.