Bio 502-Ch 17 Pan ?s
Terms in this set (61)
Autonomic hyperreflexia is most likely to occur before spinal shock is resolved.
Because spinal cord swelling increases the degree of dysfunction, it is difficult to distinguish between permanent and temporary loss of function until the swelling is resolved
Rebleeding after a subarachnoid hemorrhage is a significant risk and occurs most often 4 weeks after the initial hemorrhage
Tubercular meningitis is on the rise in the United States especially in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In encephalitis, viruses gain access to the central nervous system through blood or peripheral nerves
In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the intracranial pressure may approach levels of diastolic blood pressure.
Most central nervous system tumors in children are above the tentorium cerebelli.
About half of all people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have neurologic complications.
The peripheral nervous system is the main location of lesions in multiple sclerosis.
Bacterial meningitis can develop as a consequence of ear or gum infections.
Most people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis live symptom free for at least 10 years following diagnosis.
Radiculopathies are disorders of the roots of spinal nerves.
Guillain-Barré syndrome causes sensory neuropathy.
About 75% of people with myasthenia gravis have pathologic changes in the thymus.
The most severe diffuse brain injury caused by rotational acceleration is most likely to be located:
Peripheral to the brainstem
What damage occurs to the brain in classic cerebral concussions?
Diffuse cerebral disconnection from the reticular activating system
Which disorder has clinical manifestations of a decreased consciousness up to 6 hours, retrograde and post traumatic amnesia, and loss of reflexes with brief bradycardia and transient apnea?
_____ are most at risk of spinal cord injury from minor trauma.
Why is the edema of the upper cervical cord after spinal cord injury considered life threatening?
Because of the apnea from the impairment to the diaphragm
What are indications that spinal shock is terminating?
Reflex emptying of the bladder
What are the initial clinical manifestations associated with acute spinal cord injury?
Loss of deep tendon reflexes and flaccid paralysis
What complication is occurring for a person who has a spinal cord injury above T6 and who is experiencing paroxysmal hypertension and has piloerection and sweating above the spinal cord lesion?
Why does the person who has a spinal cord injury experience faulty control of sweating and radiation causing them to assume the temperature of the air?
Because the hypothalamus is unable to regulate body heat as a result of sympathetic nervous system damage
What sequence causes bradycardia that occurs during autonomic hyperreflexia?
Stimulation of the carotid sinus to the vagus nerve to the sinoatrial node
Which intervertebral disk has herniated for the patient who complains of motor and sensory changes of the lateral lower legs and soles of the feet?
Of the following people, who are at highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident?
Black men over 65 years of age
A patient who has a right hemisphere cerebrovascular accident caused by an emboli has left-sided paralysis and reduced sensation of the left foot and leg. What is the location of the emboli?
Right anterior cerebral artery
Atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease and valvular prosthetics are risk factors for which type of stroke?
Vasogenic edema with increased capillary permeability occurs after what type of stroke?
Which vascular malformation is characterized by arteries that feed directly into veins through vascular tangles of abnormal vessels?
Which clinical finding is almost diagnostic for an arteriovenous malformation?
Systolic bruit over the carotid artery
Which cerebral vascular disorder causes meningeal irritation, photophobia, and positive Kernig positive Brudzinski signs?
Which clinical manifestation is characteristic of cluster headaches?
Severe unilateral tearing, burning, or temporal pain
Where are most intracranial tumors located in adults?
Above the tentorium cerebelli
Where are most intracranial tumors located in children?
Below the tentorium cerebelli
Which are the most common primary CNS tumors?
What are characteristics of meningiomas?
They compress from outside the spinal cord.
What is the central component of the pathogenic model of multiple sclerosis?
Demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS
A patient was in an automobile accident in which his forehead struck the windshield. In this situation, the coup injury would occur in the _____ region.
A patient was in an automobile accident in which his forehead struck the windshield. In this situation, the contrecoup injury would occur in the _____ region.
Which areas of the spinal cord are more easily injured?
Cervical and lumbar regions
After a cervical spinal cord injury, the patient's body temperature fluctuates markedly. What is the most accurate explanation of this phenomenon?
The patient's sympathetic nervous system has been damaged disturbing thermal control.
A patient who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury is scheduled for fusion surgery in 2 days. Suddenly he develops a blood pressure of 250/120, a severe headache, blurred vision, and bradycardia. What is the explanation for these clinical manifestations?
He is developing autonomic hyperreflexia.
The type of vascular malformation that most often hemorrhages is:
A major contributing process in a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the development of atheromatous plaques in cerebral circulation. Where do these plaques most commonly form?
At branches of arteries
A patient begins having problems with tiredness, weakness, and visual changes. Her diagnosis is multiple sclerosis (MS). Which is the best description of MS?
It is a central nervous system demyelination, possibly from an immunogenetic virus.
Which are characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
It results in upper and lower motor neuron degeneration.
Which is a characteristic of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
It is preceded by a viral illness.
Which are characteristics of myasthenia gravis?
It causes muscle weakness and fatigability.
In which disorder are acetylcholine receptors antibodies (IgG antibodies) produced against acetylcholine receptors?
How are multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré similar?
Both result from demyelination by an immune reaction.
Moving object striking a stationary head
Produced by epidural hemorrhage and subdural or intracranial hematoma
Accumulation of blood, usually arterial, above dura mater, but beneath the skull
May be acute or chronic accumulation of venous blood
Bleeding into the brain parenchyma
Complication of mastoiditis
CNS manifestation of tuberculosis
Mosquito-borne viral infection
Tick-borne bacterial infection