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What is Protist?

informal name of kingdom of mostly unicellular eukaryotes

What ARE and AREN'T protists?

ARE: eukaryotic, AREN'T: plants, animals, fungi

Protist diversity has origins in ____?


Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an ____?

aerobic prokaryote

What are plastids?

circular chromosomes

Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis of a ___?

photosynthetic cyanobacteria (blue green algae)

Plastids bearing lineage of protists evolved into what?

red algae and green algae

What are Excavates?

protist group, have exoskeleton, modified mitochondria, unique flagella, specialized feeding grove like mouth looks like it was "excavated away"

Clade Euglenozoa?

clade of excavates, spiral or crystalline rod of unknown function inside flagella. (Kinetoplastids & Euglenids)

What are Chromalveolates?

protist group, may have evolved from secondary endosymbiosis, split between Alveolates & Stramenopiles

Clade Alveolata?

clade of Chromalveolates (Dinoflagelates, Apicomplexans & Ciliates)

Clade Stramenopiles?

clade of Chromalveolates (Diatoms, Golden Algae & Brown Algae)

What are Rhizaria?

protist group, (Foraminiferans & Radiolarians)

What are Archaeplastida?

protist "supergroup" that includes red algae, green algae & land plants

Heterotrophic protist acquired ___ 1 bya?

cyanobacterial endosymbiont. *It's photosynthetic descendent evolved into red & green algae

Land plants descended from ___?

Green Algae

What are Unikonta?

protist "supergroup", include protists that are closely related to fungi and animals (Amoebozoans & Opisthokonts)

What are Amoebozoans?

clade of Unikonta (Slime Molds, Gymnamoebas, Entamoebas & Choanoflagellida)

What remains controversial about the eukaryotic tree?

Its root

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