AP World History Jargon (J - P)
Terms in this set (90)
the system of courts of justice in a country.
pertaining to judgment in courts of justice or to the administration of justice: judicial proceedings; the judicial system.
a small group ruling a country, especially immediately after a coup d'état and before a legally constituted government has been instituted.
a person's relatives collectively; kinfolk.
the state or fact of being of kin; family relationship.
the theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs.
undertaken or done by or on behalf of one side, party, or faction only; not mutual: a unilateral decision; unilateral disarmament.
pertaining to, involving, or affecting two or both sides, factions, parties, or the like: a bilateral agreement; bilateral sponsorship.
participated in by more than two nations, parties, etc.; multipartite: multilateral agreements on disarmament.
(often initial capital letter) of or belonging to the political Left; having liberal or radical views in politics.
empowered to make, change, or repeal the laws of a country or state; the branch of government having the power to make laws, as distinguished from the executive and judicial branches of government.
of or pertaining to the enactment of laws: legislative proceedings; legislative power.
the state or quality of being legitimate.
favorable to or in accord with concepts of maximum individual freedom possible, especially as guaranteed by law and secured by governmental protection of civil liberties.
a combining form used in the names of sciences or bodies of knowledge: paleontology; theology. A termination of nouns referring to writing, discourses, collections, etc.: trilogy; martyrology.
lack of proper nutrition; inadequate or unbalanced nutrition.
mandate (v & n)
an authoritative order or command: a royal mandate.
readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain: a manifest error.
a public declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives, or motives, as one issued by a government, sovereign, or organization.
the original text of an author's work, handwritten or now usually typed, that is submitted to a publisher.
connected with the sea in relation to navigation, shipping, etc.
the substance or substances of which a thing is made or composed: Stone is a durable material
the aggregate of things used or needed in any business, undertaking, or operation (distinguished from personnel).
of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or in the style of the Middle Ages: medieval architecture. Compare Middle Ages.
mercantile practices or spirit; commercialism.
a combining form meaning "middle," used in the formation of compound words: mesocephalic.
a prefix appearing in loanwords from Greek, with the meanings "after," "along with," "beyond," "among," "behind," and productive in English on the Greek model: metacarpus; metagenesis; metalinguistics.
the technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties.
of or pertaining to a large city, its surrounding suburbs, and other neighboring communities: the New York metropolitan area.
a class of people intermediate between the classes of higher and lower social rank or standing; the social, economic, cultural class, having approximately average status, income, education, tastes, and the like.
the process or act of migrating. to go from one country, region, or place to another.
the principle or policy of maintaining a large military establishment.
a person appointed by or under the authority of a sovereign or head of a government to some high office of state, especially to that of head of an administrative department: the minister of finance.
the quality of being modern. characteristic of present and recent time; contemporary; not antiquated or obsolete: modern viewpoints.
supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person.
a house or place of residence occupied by a community of persons, especially monks, living in seclusion under religious vows.
of or pertaining to the coinage or currency of a country.
a combining form meaning "alone," "single," "one" (monogamy); specialized in some scientific terms to denote a monomolecular thickness (monolayer) and adapted in chemistry to apply to compounds containing one atom of a particular element (monohydrate).
marriage with only one person at a time. Compare bigamy, polygamy.
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices.
(in India and nearby lands) the season during which the southwest monsoon blows, commonly marked by heavy rains; rainy season.
the state or condition of being subject to death; mortal character, nature, or existence.
a large body of people, associated with a particular territory, that is sufficiently conscious of its unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly its own:
a sovereign state inhabited by a relatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
devotion and loyalty to one's own nation; patriotism.
a combining form meaning "new," "recent," "revived," "modified," used in the formation of compound words: neo-Darwinism; Neolithic; neoorthodoxy; neophyte.
An abbreviation for privately run, nongovernment organizations that strive for world betterment. They have frequent contact with various governments and often attempt to influence policy. Amnesty International and Greenpeace are examples of NGOs.
the noble class or the body of nobles in a country. of, belonging to, or constituting a hereditary class that has special social or political status in a country or state; of or pertaining to the aristocracy.
a member of a people or tribe that has no permanent abode but moves about from place to place, usually seasonally and often following a traditional route or circuit according to the state of the pasturage or food supply.
a woman member of a religious order, especially one bound by vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
a disposition or tendency to look on the more favorable side of events or conditions and to expect the most favorable outcome.
a person who delivers authoritative, wise, or highly regarded and influential pronouncements.
uttered by the mouth; spoken: oral testimony.
of, pertaining to, or conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, ideology, etc.
opposition to war or violence of any kind.
a person who is not a Christian, Jew, or Muslim.
a combining form meaning "old" or "ancient," especially in reference to former geologic time periods, used in the formation of compound words: paleobotany.
a combining form meaning "all," occurring originally in loanwords from Greek (panacea; panoply), but now used freely as a general formative (panleukopenia; panorama; pantelegraph; pantheism; pantonality), and especially in terms, formed at will, implying the union of all branches of a group (Pan-Christian; Panhellenic; Pan-Slavism).
of or pertaining to the pope or the papacy: a papal visit to Canada.
pertaining to the country or to life in the country; rural; rustic.
characteristic of or befitting a father; fatherly: a kind and paternal reprimand.
a person regarded as the father or founder of an order, class, etc.
a form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line, with the children belonging to the father's clan or tribe.
a person of noble or high rank; aristocrat.
a coarse, unsophisticated, boorish, uneducated person of little financial means.
the practice of holding persons in servitude or partial slavery, as to work off a debt or to serve a penal sentence.
a round of time or series of years by which time is measured.
the state of one's ideas, the facts known to one, etc., in having a meaningful interrelationship: You have to live here a few years to see local conditions in perspective.
the tendency to see, anticipate, or emphasize only bad or undesirable outcomes, results, conditions, problems, etc.:
a newcomer to a region or place, especially to the western U.S.
a journey, especially a long one, made to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion:
an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; pestilence.
point of view
an opinion, attitude, or judgment: He refuses to change his point of view in the matter.
the science or art of political government.
a combining form with the meanings "much, many" and, in chemistry, "polymeric," used in the formation of compound words: polyandrous; polyculture; polyethylene.
the practice or condition of having more than one spouse, especially wife, at one time. Compare bigamy (def. 1), monogamy (def. 1).
a prefix, meaning "behind," "after," "later," "subsequent to," "posterior to,"
a philosophical movement or system having various forms, but generally stressing practical consequences as constituting the essential criterion in determining meaning, truth, or value.
a person whose office it is to perform religious rites, and especially to make sacrificial offerings.
first in order in any series, sequence, etc.
first or highest in rank, importance, value, etc.; chief; foremost.
a fundamental, primary, or general law or truth from which others are derived: the principles of modern physics.
the class of wage earners, especially those who earn their living by manual labor or who are dependent for support on daily or casual employment; the working class.
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
the relation of a strong state toward a weaker state or territory that it protects and partly controls.
a combining form meaning "first," "foremost," "earliest form of," used in the formation of compound words
a country, territory, district, or region.
of or pertaining to the provinces: provincial customs; provincial dress.
The push factor involves a force which acts to drive people away from a place and the pull factor is what draws them to a new location.
a combining form representing psyche (psychological) and psychological (psychoanalysis) in compound words.
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